About Berkshire Hathaway

Berkshire Hathaway Inc. (Berkshire), through its subsidiaries, engages in various business activities, including insurance and reinsurance, freight rail transportation, utilities and energy, manufacturing, service, retailing and retailing.

Insurance and Reinsurance Businesses

Berkshire’s insurance and reinsurance business activities are conducted through numerous domestic and foreign-based insurance subsidiaries. Berkshire’s insurance subsidiaries provide insurance and reinsurance of property and casualty risks and reinsurance of life and health risks worldwide.

Berkshire’s insurance group operates in some countries through subsidiaries and in some countries through branches of subsidiaries. Berkshire insurance subsidiaries are located in several countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom (U.K.), Ireland, Australia and South Africa; and also maintains branches in several other countries. Most of these foreign jurisdictions impose local capital requirements. Other legal requirements include discretionary licensing procedures, local retention of funds and records, and data privacy and protection program requirements. Berkshire’s international insurance companies are also subject to multinational application of certain the U.S. laws.

Berkshire’s insurance underwriting operations include various groups, such as GEICO, Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group, and Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group.

GEICO—GEICO is headquartered in Chevy Chase, Maryland. GEICO’s insurance subsidiaries consist of Government Employees Insurance Company, GEICO General Insurance Company, GEICO Indemnity Company, GEICO Casualty Company, GEICO Advantage Insurance Company, GEICO Choice Insurance Company, GEICO Secure Insurance Company, GEICO County Mutual Insurance Company, GEICO Texas County Mutual Insurance Company, and GEICO Marine Insurance Company. The GEICO companies primarily offer private passenger automobile insurance to individuals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. GEICO also provides insurance for motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, recreational vehicles, boats and small commercial fleets and acts as an agent for other insurers who offer homeowners, renters, life and identity management insurance to individuals who desire insurance coverages other than those offered by GEICO.

GEICO’s marketing is primarily through direct response methods in which applications for insurance are submitted directly to the companies via the Internet or by telephone, and to a lesser extent, through captive agents. GEICO conducts business through regional service centers and claims adjustment and other facilities in 39 states.

GEICO competes for private passenger automobile insurance customers in the preferred, standard and non-standard risk markets with other companies that sell directly to the customer and with companies that use agency sales forces, including State Farm, Allstate, Progressive and USAA.

GEICO primarily uses its own claims staff to manage and settle claims.

Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group—The Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group (BH Primary) is a collection of independently managed insurers that provide a wide variety of insurance coverages to policyholders located principally in the United States (U.S.). These various operations are discussed below:

National Indemnity Company (NICO), domiciled in Nebraska, and certain affiliates (NICO Primary) underwrite commercial motor vehicle and general liability insurance on an admitted basis and on an excess and surplus basis. Insurance coverages are offered nationwide primarily through insurance agents and brokers.

The Berkshire Hathaway Homestate Companies (BHHC) is a group of insurers offering workers’ compensation, commercial auto and commercial property coverages to a diverse client base. BHHC has a national reach, with the ability to provide first-dollar and small to large deductible workers’ compensation coverage to employers in all states, except those where coverage is available only through state-operated workers’ compensation funds.

Berkshire Hathaway Specialty Insurance (BH Specialty) offers commercial property, casualty, healthcare professional liability, executive and professional, surety, travel, medical stop loss and homeowner’s insurance through Berkshire Hathaway Specialty Insurance Company and other Berkshire insurance affiliates. BH Specialty writes primary and excess policies on an admitted and surplus basis in the U.S., and on a local or foreign non-admitted basis outside the U.S. BH Specialty is based in Boston, Massachusetts, with regional offices in several the U.S. cities. BH Specialty also maintains international offices located in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and several countries in Asia, Europe and the Middle East. BH Specialty writes business through wholesale and retail insurance brokers, as well as managing general agents.

MedPro Group (MedPro) is a leading provider of healthcare liability (HCL) insurance in the United States. MedPro provides customized HCL insurance, claims, patient safety and risk solutions to physicians, surgeons, dentists, and other healthcare professionals, as well as hospitals, senior care and other healthcare facilities. Additionally, MedPro provides HCL insurance solutions to international markets through other Berkshire insurance affiliates, delivers liability insurance to other professionals, and offers specialized accident and health insurance solutions to colleges and other customers through its subsidiaries and other Berkshire insurance affiliates. MedPro is based in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

U.S. Liability Insurance Company (USLI) includes a group of five specialty insurers that underwrite commercial, professional, and personal lines insurance on an admitted basis, as well as on an excess and surplus basis. USLI markets policies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Canada through wholesale and retail insurance agents. USLI companies also underwrite and market a wide variety of specialty insurance products. USLI is based in Wayne, Pennsylvania.

Berkshire Hathaway GUARD Insurance Companies (GUARD) is a group of five insurance companies that provide a full suite of commercial insurance products, as well as homeowners policies to over 350,000 small to mid-sized businesses and homeowners. These offerings are made through independent agents and retail and wholesale brokers. GUARD is based in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.

MLMIC Insurance Company (MLMIC) has been the leading writer of medical professional liability insurance in New York State for over 40 years. MLMIC distributes the majority of its policies on a direct basis to medical and dental professionals, health care providers and hospitals.

Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group—Berkshire’s combined global reinsurance business, referred to as the Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group (BHRG), offers a wide range of coverages on property, casualty, life and health risks to insurers and reinsurers worldwide. BHRG conducts business activities in 24 countries. Reinsurance business is written through NICO and certain other Berkshire insurance subsidiaries (collectively, the NICO Group) and General Re Corporation, domiciled in Delaware, and its subsidiaries (collectively the General Re Group). BHRG’s underwriting operations in the U.S. are based in Stamford, Connecticut. The type and volume of business written is dependent on market conditions, including prevailing premium rates and coverage terms.

Property/Casualty

The NICO Group offers traditional property/casualty reinsurance on both an excess-of-loss and a quota-share basis, catastrophe excess-of-loss treaty and facultative reinsurance, and primary insurance on an excess-of-loss basis for large or unusual risks. The type and volume of business written by the NICO Group may vary significantly from period to period resulting from changes in perceived premium rate adequacy and from unique or large transactions. A significant portion of NICO Group’s annual reinsurance premium volume derives from a 20% quota-share agreement with Insurance Australia Group Limited (IAG) that expires July 1, 2025. IAG is a multi-line insurer in Australia, New Zealand and other the Asia-Pacific countries.

The General Re Group conducts a global property and casualty reinsurance business. Reinsurance contracts are written on both a quota-share and excess basis for multiple lines of business. Contracts are primarily in the form of treaties, and to a lesser degree, on a facultative basis. General Re Group conducts business in North America primarily through General Reinsurance Corporation (GRC), which is licensed in the District of Columbia and all states, except Hawaii, where it is an accredited reinsurer. GRC conducts operations in North America from its headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut and through 12 branch offices in the U.S. and Canada.

In North America, the General Re Group includes General Star National Insurance Company, General Star Indemnity Company and Genesis Insurance Company, which offer a broad array of specialty and surplus lines and property, casualty and professional liability coverages. Such business is marketed through a select group of wholesale brokers, managing general underwriters and program administrators; and offers solutions for the unique needs of public entity, commercial and captive customers.

General Re Group’s international reinsurance business is conducted on a direct basis through General Reinsurance AG, based in Cologne, Germany, and through several other subsidiaries and branches in numerous other countries. International business is also written through brokers, including Faraday Underwriting Limited (Faraday), a wholly-owned subsidiary. Faraday owns the managing agent of Syndicate 435 at Lloyd’s of London and provides capacity and participates in 100% of the results of Syndicate 435.

Life/Health

The General Re Group also conducts a global life and health reinsurance business. In the U.S. and internationally, the General Re Group writes life, disability, supplemental health, critical illness and long-term care coverages. The life/health business is marketed on a direct basis. Life/health net premiums written by the General Re Group in 2021 were primarily in the Asia Pacific, the United States, and Western Europe.

Berkshire Hathaway Life Insurance Company of Nebraska (BHLN), a subsidiary of NICO, and its affiliates write reinsurance covering various forms of traditional life insurance exposures and, on a limited basis, health insurance exposures. BHLN and affiliates are parties to contracts that reinsure certain guaranteed minimum death, income and similar benefit risks on closed-blocks of variable annuity risks under reinsurance contracts.

Retroactive Reinsurance

NICO also periodically writes retroactive reinsurance contracts. Retroactive reinsurance contracts indemnify ceding companies against the adverse development of claims arising from loss events that have already occurred under property and casualty policies issued in prior years. Coverages under such contracts are provided on an excess basis (above a stated retention) or for losses payable after the inception of the contract with no additional ceding company retention. Contracts are normally subject to aggregate limits of indemnification, which can be exceptionally large in amount. Significant amounts of asbestos, environmental and latent injury claims may arise under these contracts.

Periodic Payment Annuity

BHLN writes periodic payment annuity insurance policies and reinsures existing annuity-like obligations. Under these policies, BHLN receives upfront premiums and agrees in the future to make periodic payments that often extend for decades. These policies generally relate to the settlement of underlying personal injury or workers’ compensation cases of other insurers, known as structured settlements.

Investments of Insurance Businesses—Berkshire’s insurance subsidiaries hold significant levels of invested assets. Investment portfolios are primarily managed by Berkshire’s Chief Executive Officer. Investments include a very large portfolio of publicly traded equity securities, which are concentrated in relatively few issuers, as well as fixed maturity securities and cash and short-term investments.

Railroad Business—Burlington Northern Santa Fe

Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC (BNSF) is based in Fort Worth, Texas, and through BNSF Railway Company (BNSF Railway) operates one of the largest railroad systems in North America. BNSF also operates a relatively smaller third-party logistics services business.

In serving the Midwest, Pacific Northwest, Western, Southwestern and Southeastern regions and ports of the United States, BNSF transports a range of products and commodities derived from manufacturing, agricultural and natural resource industries. Freight revenues are covered by contractual agreements of varying durations or common carrier published prices or company quotations. BNSF’s financial performance is influenced by among other things, general and industry economic conditions at the international, national and regional levels.

BNSF’s primary routes, including trackage rights, allow it to access major cities and ports in the western and southern United States, as well as parts of Canada and Mexico. In addition to major cities and ports, BNSF Railway efficiently serves many smaller markets by working closely with approximately 200 shortline railroads. BNSF Railway has also entered into marketing agreements with other rail carriers, expanding the marketing reach for each railroad and their customers. For the year ending December 31, 2021, approximately 38% of freight revenues were derived from consumer products, 24% from industrial products, 23% from agricultural products, and 15% from coal.

Utilities and Energy Businesses—Berkshire Hathaway Energy Company

Berkshire has a 91.1% ownership interest in Berkshire Hathaway Energy Company (BHE). BHE is a global energy company with subsidiaries and affiliates that generate, transmit, store, distribute and supply energy. BHE’s locally managed businesses are organized as separate operating units. BHE’s domestic regulated energy interests include four regulated utility companies serving approximately 5.2 million retail customers, five interstate natural gas pipeline companies with approximately 21,100 miles of operated pipeline having a design capacity of approximately 21 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day and ownership interests in electricity transmission businesses. BHE’s Great Britain electricity distribution subsidiaries serve about 3.9 million electricity end-users and its electricity transmission-only business in Alberta, Canada serves approximately 85% of Alberta’s population. BHE’s interests also include a diversified portfolio of independent power projects, a liquefied natural gas export, import and storage facility, the largest residential real estate brokerage firm in the United States, and one of the largest residential real estate brokerage franchise networks in the United States. BHE employs approximately 24,000 people in connection with its various operations.

General Matters

PacifiCorp is a regulated electric utility company headquartered in Oregon, serving electric customers in portions of Utah, Oregon, Wyoming, Washington, Idaho and California. The combined service territory’s diverse regional economy ranges from rural, agricultural and mining areas to urban, manufacturing and government service centers.

MidAmerican Energy Company (MEC) is a regulated electric and natural gas utility company headquartered in Iowa, serving electric and natural gas customers primarily in Iowa and also in portions of Illinois, South Dakota and Nebraska. MEC has a diverse retail customer base consisting of urban and rural residential customers and a variety of commercial and industrial customers. In addition to retail sales and natural gas transportation, MEC sells electricity and natural gas on a wholesale basis.

NV Energy, Inc. (NV Energy) is an energy holding company headquartered in Nevada, primarily consisting of two regulated utility subsidiaries, Nevada Power Company (Nevada Power) and Sierra Pacific Power Company (Sierra Pacific) (collectively, the Nevada Utilities). Nevada Power serves retail electric customers in southern Nevada and Sierra Pacific serves retail electric and natural gas customers in northern Nevada. The Nevada Utilities’ combined service territory’s economy includes gaming, mining, recreation, warehousing, manufacturing and governmental services. In addition to retail sales and natural gas transportation, the Nevada Utilities sell electricity and natural gas on a wholesale basis.

As vertically integrated utilities, BHE’s domestic utilities own approximately 29,400 net megawatts of generation capacity in operation and under construction. The domestic utilities business is subject to seasonal variations principally related to the use of electricity for air conditioning and natural gas for heating. Typically, regulated electric revenues are higher in the summer months, while regulated natural gas revenues are higher in the winter months.

The Great Britain distribution companies consist of Northern Powergrid (Northeast) plc and Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) plc, which own a substantial electricity distribution network that delivers electricity to end-users in northeast England in an area covering approximately 10,000 square miles. The distribution companies primarily charge supply companies regulated tariffs for the use of their distribution systems.

AltaLink L.P. (AltaLink) is a regulated electric transmission-only utility company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. AltaLink’s high voltage transmission lines and related facilities transmit electricity from generating facilities to major load centers, cities and large industrial plants throughout its 87,000 square mile service territory.

The natural gas pipelines consist of BHE GT&S, LLC (BHE GT&S); Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural); and Kern River Gas Transmission Company (Kern River). BHE GT&S was acquired on November 1, 2020.

BHE GT&S, based in Virginia, operates three interstate natural gas pipeline systems that consist of approximately 5,400 miles of natural gas transmission, gathering and storage pipelines; and operates seventeen underground natural gas storage fields in the eastern region of the United States. BHE GT&S’s large underground natural gas storage assets and pipeline systems are part of an interconnected gas transmission network that provides transportation services to utilities and numerous other customers. BHE GT&S is also an industry leader in liquefied natural gas solutions through its investments in and ownership of several liquefied natural gas facilities located throughout the eastern region of the United States.

Northern Natural, based in Nebraska, operates the largest interstate natural gas pipeline system in the United States, as measured by pipeline miles, reaching from west Texas to Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Northern Natural’s pipeline system consists of approximately 14,300 miles of natural gas pipelines. Northern Natural’s extensive pipeline system, which is interconnected with many interstate and intrastate pipelines in the national grid system, has access to supplies from multiple major supply basins and provides transportation services to utilities and numerous other customers. Northern Natural also operates three underground natural gas storage facilities and two liquefied natural gas storage peaking units. Northern Natural’s pipeline system experiences significant seasonal swings in demand and revenue, with the highest demand typically occurring during the months of November through March.

Kern River, based in Utah, operates an interstate natural gas pipeline system that consists of approximately 1,400 miles and extends from supply areas in the Rocky Mountains to consuming markets in Utah, Nevada, and California. Kern River transports natural gas for electric and natural gas distribution utilities, major oil and natural gas companies or affiliates of such companies, electric generating companies, energy marketing and trading companies, and financial institutions.

BHE Renewables, LLC, based in Iowa, owns interests in independent power projects having approximately 4,900 net megawatts of generation capacity that are in service in California, Texas, Illinois, Nebraska, New York, Arizona, Minnesota, Kansas, Iowa and Hawaii. These independent power projects sell power generated primarily from wind, solar, geothermal and hydro sources under long-term contracts.

Regulatory Matters

PacifiCorp, MEC and the Nevada Utilities are subject to comprehensive regulation by various federal, state and local agencies. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is an independent agency with broad authority to implement provisions of the Federal Power Act, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and other federal statutes. MEC is also subject to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, with respect to its 25% ownership of the Quad Cities Nuclear Station.

Northern Powergrid (Northeast) and Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) each charge fees for the use of their distribution systems that are controlled by a formula prescribed by the British electricity regulatory body, the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority. The eight-year price control period runs from April 1, 2015, through March 31, 2023.

AltaLink is regulated by the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC), pursuant to the Electric Utilities Act (Alberta), the Public Utilities Act (Alberta), the Alberta Utilities Commission Act (Alberta), and the Hydro and Electric Energy Act (Alberta). Under the Electric Utilities Act, AltaLink prepares and files applications with the AUC for the approval of tariffs to be paid by the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for the use of its transmission facilities, and the terms and conditions governing the use of those facilities. The AESO is an independent system operator in Alberta, Canada that oversees Alberta’s integrated electrical system (AIES) and wholesale electricity market.

The natural gas pipeline and storage operations of BHE GT&S, Northern Natural and Kern River are regulated by the FERC pursuant to the Natural Gas Act and the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Interstate natural gas pipeline companies are also subject to regulations administered by the Office of Pipeline Safety within the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, an agency of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT). Federal pipeline safety regulations are issued pursuant to the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, as amended, which establishes safety requirements in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of interstate natural gas pipeline facilities.

Environmental Matters

BHE and its energy businesses are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations regarding climate change, renewable portfolio standards, air and water quality, emissions performance standards, coal combustion byproduct disposal, hazardous and solid waste disposal, protected species and other environmental matters that have the potential to impact operations. In addition to imposing continuing compliance obligations, these laws and regulations, such as the Federal Clean Air Act, provide regulators with the authority to levy substantial penalties for noncompliance, including fines, injunctive relief and other sanctions.

Non-Energy Businesses

HomeServices of America, Inc. (HomeServices) is the largest residential real estate brokerage firm in the United States. In addition to providing traditional residential real estate brokerage services, HomeServices offers other integrated real estate services, including mortgage originations and mortgage banking, title and closing services, property and casualty insurance, home warranties, relocation services and other home-related services. It operates under 55 brand names with approximately 46,000 real estate agents in over 900 brokerage offices in 33 states and the District of Columbia.

HomeServices’ franchise network includes approximately 360 franchisees primarily in the United States, and internationally in over 1,600 brokerage offices with over 53,000 real estate agents under two brand names. In exchange for certain fees, HomeServices provides the right to use the Berkshire Hathaway HomeServices or Real Living brand names and other related service marks, as well as providing orientation programs, training and consultation services, advertising programs and other services. HomeServices’ principal sources of revenue are dependent on residential real estate sales, which are generally higher in the second and third quarters of each year (year ended December 2021).

Manufacturing Businesses

Berkshire’s numerous and diverse manufacturing subsidiaries are grouped into three categories, such as industrial products, building products, and consumer products. Berkshire’s industrial products businesses manufacture components for aerospace and power generation applications, specialty chemicals, metal cutting tools, and a variety of other products primarily for industrial use. The building products group produces prefabricated and site-built residential homes, flooring products, insulation, roofing and engineered products, building and engineered components, paint and coatings and bricks and masonry products. The consumer products group manufactures recreational vehicles, alkaline batteries, various apparel products, jewelry, and custom picture framing products.

Industrial products

Precision Castparts Corporation (PCC)

PCC manufactures complex metal components and products, provides high-quality investment castings, forgings, fasteners/fastener systems and aerostructures for critical aerospace and power and energy applications. PCC also manufactures seamless pipe for coal-fired, industrial gas turbine (IGT) and nuclear power plants; downhole casing and tubing, fittings and various mill forms in a variety of nickel and steel alloys for severe-service oil and gas environments; investment castings and forgings for general industrial, armament, medical and other applications; nickel and titanium alloys in all standard mill forms from large ingots and billets to plate, foil, sheet, strip, tubing, bar, rod, extruded shapes, rod-in-coil, wire and welding consumables, as well as cobalt alloys, for the aerospace, chemical processing, oil and gas, pollution control and other industries; revert management solutions; fasteners for automotive and general industrial markets; specialty alloys for the investment casting and forging industries; heat treating and destructive testing services for the investment cast products and forging industries; grinder pumps and affiliated components for low-pressure sewer systems; critical auxiliary equipment and gas monitoring systems for the power generation industry; and metalworking tools for the fastener market and other applications.

Investment casting technology involves a multi-step process that uses ceramic molds in the manufacture of metal components with more complex shapes, closer tolerances and finer surface finishes than parts manufactured using other methods. PCC uses this process to manufacture products for aircraft engines, IGT and other aeroderivative engines, airframes, medical implants, armament, unmanned aerial vehicles and other industrial applications. PCC also manufactures high temperature carbon and ceramic composite components, including ceramic matrix composites, for use in next-generation aerospace engines.

PCC uses forging processes to manufacture components for the aerospace and power generation markets, including seamless pipe for coal-fired, IGT and nuclear power plants, and downhole casings and tubing pipe for severe service oil and gas markets. PCC manufactures high-performance, nickel-based alloys used to produce forged components for aerospace and non-aerospace applications in such markets as oil and gas, chemical processing and pollution control. These titanium products are used to manufacture components for the commercial and military aerospace, power generation, energy, and other industrial end markets.

PCC is also a leading developer and manufacturer of highly engineered fasteners, fastener systems, aerostructures and precision components, primarily for critical aerospace applications. These products are produced for the aerospace and power, and energy markets, as well as for construction, automotive, heavy truck, farm machinery, mining and construction equipment, shipbuilding, machine tools, medical equipment, appliance and recreation markets.

PCC has several significant customers, including aerospace original equipment manufacturers (Boeing and Airbus) and aircraft engine manufacturer suppliers (General Electric, Rolls Royce, and Pratt &Whitney). The majority of PCC’s sales are from customer orders or demand schedules pursuant to long-term agreements.

Lubrizol

The Lubrizol Corporation (Lubrizol) is a specialty chemical and performance materials company that manufactures products and supplies technologies for the global transportation, industrial and consumer markets. Lubrizol operates two business segments, Lubrizol Additives, which produces engine lubricant additives, driveline lubricant additives and industrial specialties products; and Lubrizol Advanced Materials, which includes engineered materials (engineered polymers and performance coatings) and life sciences (beauty and personal care, and health and home care solutions).

Lubrizol Additives’ products are used in a broad range of applications, including engine oils, transmission fluids, gear oils, specialty driveline lubricants, fuels, metalworking fluids and compressor lubricants for transportation and industrial applications. Lubrizol Advanced Materials’ products are used in many different types of applications, including beauty, personal care, home care, over-the-counter pharmaceuticals, medical devices, performance coatings, sporting goods, plumbing and fire sprinkler systems. Its principal lubricant additives competitors are Infineum International Ltd., Chevron Oronite Company, and Afton Chemical Corporation. Lubrizol Advanced Materials’ businesses compete in many markets with a variety of competitors in each product line.

Lubrizol operates its business on a global basis through more than 100 offices, laboratories, production facilities and warehouses on six continents, the most significant of which are North America, Europe, Asia and South America. Lubrizol markets its products worldwide through direct sales, sales agents and distributors. Lubrizol’s customers principally consist of major global and regional oil companies and industrial and consumer products companies. Some of Lubrizol’s largest customers also may be suppliers.

IMC

IMC International Metalworking Companies (IMC) is one of the world’s three largest multinational manufacturers of consumable precision carbide metal cutting tools for applications in a broad range of industrial end markets. IMC’s principal brand names include ISCAR, TaeguTec, Ingersoll, Tungaloy, Unitac, UOP, It.te.di, Qutiltec, Tool—Flo, PCT and IMCO. IMC’s primary manufacturing facilities are in Israel, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, India, and China.

IMC has five primary product lines, including milling tools, gripping tools, turning/thread tools, drilling tools and tooling. The main products are split within each product line between consumable cemented tungsten carbide inserts and steel tool holders. Inserts comprise the vast majority of sales and earnings. Metal cutting inserts are used by industrial manufacturers to cut metals and are consumed during their use in cutting applications. IMC manufactures hundreds of types of highly engineered inserts within each product line that are tailored to maximize productivity and meet the technical requirements of customers. IMC’s staff of scientists and engineers continuously develop and innovate products that address end user needs and requirements.

IMC’s global sales and marketing network operates in virtually every major manufacturing center around the world, staffed with highly skilled engineers and technical personnel. IMC’s customer base is very diverse, with its primary customers being large, multinational businesses in the automotive, aerospace, engineering and machinery industries. IMC operates a regional central warehouse system with locations in Israel, the United States, Belgium, Korea, Japan and China. Additional small quantities of products are maintained at local IMC offices to provide on-time customer support and inventory management.

Marmon

Marmon Holdings, Inc. (Marmon) is a global industrial organization comprising 11 diverse business groups and more than 100 autonomous manufacturing and service businesses. Marmon’s manufacturing and service operations are conducted at approximately 400 manufacturing, distribution and service facilities located primarily in the United States, as well as 22 other countries worldwide. Marmon’s business groups are as follows:

Foodservice Technologies manufactures beverage dispensing and cooling equipment, hot and cold food preparation and holding equipment and related products for restaurants, global brand owners and other foodservice providers. Operations are based in the U.S. with manufacturing in the U.S., Mexico, China, the U.K., Germany and Italy. Products are sold primarily throughout the U.S., Europe and Asia.

Water Technologies manufactures water treatment equipment for residential, commercial and industrial applications worldwide. Operations are based primarily in the U.S., Canada, China, Singapore, India and Mexico with business centers located in Belgium, France, Poland, Germany, the U.K., Italy, Switzerland and the U.A.E.

Transportation Products serves the automotive, heavy-duty highway transportation and aerospace industries with precision-molded plastic components; fastener thread solutions; metal tubing; auto aftermarket transmission and chassis products; platform and lowbed trailers; and truck and trailer components. Operations and business are conducted primarily in the U.S., Mexico, Canada, Europe and Asia.

Retail Solutions provides retail environment design services; in-store digital merchandising, dispensing and display fixtures; shopping, material handling and security carts. Operations and business are conducted in the U.S., the U.K., and the Czech Republic.

Metal Services provides specialty metal pipe, tubing and related value-added services to customers across a broad range of industries. Operations are based in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico; and business is conducted primarily in those countries.

Electrical produces electrical wire for use in residential and commercial buildings, and specialty wire and cable for use in energy, transit, aerospace, defense, communication and other industrial applications. Operations are based in the U.S., Canada, India and England. Business is conducted globally and primarily in the U.S., Canada, India, the U.K., the U.A.E. and China.

Plumbing and Refrigeration supplies copper tubing and copper, brass, aluminum and stainless-steel fittings and components for the plumbing, HVAC and refrigeration markets; custom coils ducting, air handling units and heatpipe for the HVAC market; HVAC systems and structures for military, nuclear and medical markets; and aluminum and brass forgings for many commercial and industrial applications. Business and operations are conducted primarily in the U.S.

Industrial Products supplies construction fasteners; masonry and stone anchoring systems used in commercial construction; two component polymer products for anchoring, bonding and repair applications, gloves and other protective wear; gear drives, gearboxes, fan drives and pump drives for various markets; wind machines for agricultural use; and wheels, axles and gears for rail, mining and other applications and equipment for the manufacture and assembly of lead acid batteries. Operations are primarily based in the U.S., the U.K., Canada and China; and business is conducted in those countries.

Rail and Leasing manufactures, leases and maintains railcars; leases intermodal tank containers; manufactures mobile railcar movers; provides in-plant rail switching and loading services; performs track construction and maintenance; and manufactures steel tank heads and cylinders.

Union Tank Car Company (UTLX) is the largest component of Rail & Leasing and is a leading designer, builder and full-service lessor of railroad tank cars and other specialized railcars. Together with its Canadian affiliate Procor Limited, UTLX owns a fleet of approximately 122,000 railcars for lease to customers in chemical, petrochemical, energy and agricultural/food industries. UTLX manufactures tank cars in the U.S. and performs railcar maintenance services at more than 100 locations across North America.

UTLX has a diversified customer base, both geographically and across industries. UTLX, while subject to cyclicality and significant competition in most of its markets, competes by offering a broad range of high-quality products and services targeted at its niche markets. Railcars are typically leased for multiple-year terms and most of the leases are renewed upon expiration. Due to selective ongoing capital investment, utilization rates (the number of railcars on lease as a percentage of the total fleet) of the railcar fleet are generally high.

Intermodal tank containers are leased through EXSIF Worldwide, Inc., which is a leading international lessor of intermodal tank containers with a fleet of approximately 75,000 units, primarily serving chemical producers and logistics operators.

Crane Services is a provider of mobile cranes and operators in North America and Australia with a combined fleet of approximately 1,100 cranes, primarily serving the energy, mining, petrochemical and infrastructure markets.

Medical (formed in 2019 through the acquisition of the Colson Medical Companies) develops, manufactures and distributes a wide range of innovative medical devices in the extremities fixation, craniomaxillofacial surgery, neurosurgery, biologics, aesthetics and powered instruments markets. The group’s leading-edge medical technology and products are used globally to help improve patient care and outcomes. Operations are based in the U.S., Europe and China. Business is conducted primarily in North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia.

Certain Marmon business, including the Rail and Medical groups, are subject to government regulation and oversight. Marmon has numerous known environmental matters, which are subject to on-going monitoring and/or remediation efforts. Marmon follows all federal, state and local environmental regulations.

Other Industrial Products

CTB International Corp. (CTB), headquartered in Milford, Indiana, is a leading global designer, manufacturer and marketer of a wide range of agricultural systems and solutions for preserving grain; producing poultry, pigs and eggs; and for processing poultry, fish, vegetables and other foods. CTB operates from facilities located around the globe and supports customers through a worldwide network of independent distributors and dealers.

LiquidPower Specialty Products Inc. (LSPI), headquartered in Houston, Texas, is a global leader in the science of drag reduction application (DRA) technology by maximizing the flow potential of pipelines, increasing operational flexibility and throughput capacity, and efficiencies for customers. LSPI develops innovative flow improver solutions with customers in over 20 countries on five continents, treating over 50 million barrels of hydrocarbon liquids per day. LSPI’s DRA offering is part of a comprehensive, full-service solution that encompasses industry-leading technology, quality manufacturing, technical support and consulting, a reliable supply chain, injection equipment and field service. LSPI is subject to foreign, federal, state and local laws to protect the environment and limit manufacturing waste and emissions.

The Scott Fetzer companies are a group of businesses that manufacture, distribute, service and finance a wide variety of products for residential, industrial and institutional use.

Building Products

Clayton

Clayton Homes, Inc. (Clayton), headquartered near Knoxville, Tennessee, is a vertically integrated housing company offering traditional site-built homes and off-site built housing, including modular, manufactured, CrossMod and tiny homes. In 2021, Clayton delivered approximately 50,000 off-site built and 11,000 site-built homes. Clayton also offers home financing and insurance products and competes on price, service, location and delivery capabilities.

All Clayton Built off-site homes are designed, engineered and assembled in the United States. Clayton sells its homes through independent and company-owned home centers, realtors and subdivision channels. Clayton considers its ability to make financing available to retail purchasers a factor affecting the market acceptance of its off-site built homes. Clayton’s financing programs utilize proprietary loan underwriting guidelines to evaluate loan applicants, which include ability to repay calculations, including debt to income limits, and incorporate residual income and credit score requirements.

Since 2015, Clayton’s site-built division, Clayton Properties Group, has expanded through the acquisition of nine builders across 14 states with over 300 subdivisions, supplementing the portfolio of housing products offered to customers. Clayton’s site-builders own and control approximately 83,000 homesites.

Shaw

Shaw Industries Group, Inc. (Shaw), headquartered in Dalton, Georgia, is a leading manufacturer and distributor of carpet and flooring products. Shaw designs and manufactures over 4,100 styles of tufted carpet, wood and resilient flooring for residential and commercial use under about 30 brand and trade names and under certain private labels. Shaw also provides project management and installation services. Shaw’s manufacturing operations are fully integrated from the processing of raw materials used to make fiber through the finishing of carpet. Shaw manufactures and distributes carpet tile throughout Europe. Shaw also manufactures or distributes a variety of hardwood, wood plastic composite (WPC), stone plastic composite (SPC), and vinyl and laminate floor products (hard surfaces). Shaw’s soft and hard surface products are sold in a broad range of patterns, colors and textures. Shaw operates Shaw Sports Turf and Southwest Greens International, LLC, which provide synthetic sports turf, golf greens and landscape turf products. In 2021, Shaw’s businesses included Watershed Geosynthetics, LLC, which sells innovative and patented environmental solutions for utility, waste management, erosion control and mining industries.

Shaw products are sold wholesale to over 47,000 retailers, distributors and commercial users throughout the United States, Canada and Mexico; and are also exported to various overseas markets. Shaw’s wholesale products are marketed domestically by over 2,100 salaried and commissioned sales personnel directly to retailers and distributors and to large national accounts. Shaw’s seven carpet, nine hard surface, one sample full-service distribution facility, three sample satellite locations and 30 redistribution centers, along with centralized management information systems, enable it to provide prompt and efficient delivery of its products to both its retail customers and wholesale distributors.

Substantially all carpet manufactured by Shaw is tufted carpet made from nylon, polypropylene and polyester. In the tufting process, yarn is inserted by multiple needles into a synthetic backing, forming loops, which may be cut or left uncut, depending on the desired texture or construction. During 2021, Shaw processed approximately 97% of its requirements for carpet yarn in its own yarn processing facilities.

Johns Manville

Johns Manville Corporation (JM), headquartered in Denver, Colorado, is a leading manufacturer and marketer of premium-quality products for building insulation, mechanical and industrial insulation, commercial roofing, and roof insulation, as well as fibers and nonwovens for commercial, industrial and residential applications. JM serves markets that include aerospace, automotive and transportation, air handling, appliance, HVAC, pipe and equipment, filtration, waterproofing, building, flooring, interiors and wind energy. Fiberglass is the basic material in a majority of JM’s products, although JM also manufactures a significant portion of its products with other materials to satisfy the broader needs of its customers. Raw materials are generally available in sufficient quantities from various sources for JM to maintain and expand its production levels. JM regards its patents and licenses as valuable, however it does not consider any of its businesses to be materially dependent on any single patent or license. JM operates over 40 manufacturing facilities in North America and Europe, and conducts research and development at its technical center in Littleton, Colorado and at other facilities in the U.S. and Europe.

Fiberglass is made from earthen raw materials and recycled glass, together with agents to bind many of its glass fibers. JM’s products also contain materials other than fiberglass, including various chemical and petrochemical-based materials used in roofing and other specialized products. JM uses recycled material when available and suitable to satisfy the broader needs of its customers. The raw materials used in these various products are generally readily available in sufficient quantities from various sources to maintain and expand its production levels.

JM identifies and strives to mitigate risk with respect to material applicable laws and regulations, including environmental laws and regulations. JM’s operations are subject to a variety of federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, which regulate or impose liability for the discharge of materials into the air, land and water; and govern the use and disposal of hazardous substances and use of chemical substances. The most relevant of the federal laws are the Federal Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which are administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Canadian and European regulatory authorities have also adopted their own environmental laws and regulations. JM continually monitors new and pending regulations and assesses their potential impact on the business. JM’s capital projects regularly address environmental compliance and are generally incidental to other capital projects.

JM sells its products through a wide variety of channels, including contractors, distributors, retailers, manufacturers, and fabricators. JM holds leadership positions in the key markets that it serves. The sale of JM’s products is moderately seasonal due to increases in construction activity that typically occur in the second and third quarters of the calendar year. JM sees a marketplace trend in customer purchasing decisions being influenced by the sustainable and energy efficient attributes of its products, services, and operations.

MiTek

MiTek Industries, Inc. (MiTek), based in Chesterfield, Missouri, operates in two separate markets, such as residential and commercial. MiTek operates worldwide with sales in over 100 countries and with manufacturing facilities and/or sales/engineering offices located in 21 countries.

In the residential building market, MiTek is a leading supplier of engineered connector products, construction hardware, engineering software and services; and computer-driven manufacturing machinery to the truss component market of the building components industry. MiTek’s primary customers are component manufacturers who manufacture prefabricated roof and floor trusses and wall panels for the residential building market. MiTek also sells construction hardware to commercial distributors and do-it-yourself retail stores.

Benjamin Moore

Benjamin Moore & Co. (Benjamin Moore), headquartered in Montvale, New Jersey, is one of North America’s leading manufacturers of premium quality residential, commercial and industrial maintenance coatings. Benjamin Moore is committed to innovation and sustainable manufacturing practices. The Benjamin Moore premium portfolio spans the brand’s flagship paint lines, including Aura, Regal Select, Ultra Spec, ben, ADVANCE, ARBORCOAT and more. The Benjamin Moore diversified brands include specialty and architectural paints from Coronado, Insl-x and Lenmar. Benjamin Moore coatings are available from its more than 7,500 independently owned and operated paint, decorating and hardware retailers throughout the United States and Canada, as well as 75 countries globally.

In 2019, Benjamin Moore announced the expansion of its relationship with Ace Hardware Stores (Ace), through which Benjamin Moore has become the preferred paint supplier for approximately 3,800 Ace stores, which are included in the count above. Through this agreement, these Ace stores are afforded the opportunity to carry a full line premium assortment of Benjamin Moore products or a streamlined offering of Regal Select and ben, or ben only branded products. As part of the expansion, Benjamin Moore assumed responsibility for manufacturing Clark+Kensington and Royal, as well as the balance of Ace’s private label paint brands.

In addition, Benjamin Moore operates an online pick up in store program, which allows consumers to place orders via an e-commerce site or, for national accounts and government agencies, via its customer information center.

Benjamin Moore competes with numerous manufacturers, distributors and paint, coatings and related products retailers. Competitors include other paint and decorating stores, mass merchandisers, home centers, independent hardware stores, hardware chains and manufacturer-operated direct outlets, such as Sherwin-Williams Company; PPG Industries, Inc.; The Valspar Corporation; The Home Depot, Inc.; and Lowe’s Companies, Inc.

Acme

Acme Brick Company (Acme), headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, manufactures and distributes clay bricks (Acme Brick) and concrete block (Featherlite). In addition, Acme distributes numerous other building products of other manufacturers, including floor and wall tile, wood flooring and other masonry products. Products are sold primarily in the South Central and Southeastern United States through company-operated sales offices. Acme distributes products primarily to homebuilders and masonry and general contractors.

Over the past three years, Acme closed multiple manufacturing and sales facilities. Acme operates 12 clay brick manufacturing sites located in four states, three concrete block facilities, and a quarrying operation all located in Texas. The demand for Acme’s products is seasonal, with higher sales in the warmer weather months; and is subject to the level of construction activity, which is cyclical. Acme also owns and leases properties and mineral rights that supply raw materials used in many of its manufactured products. Acme’s raw materials supply is believed to be adequate.

Consumer Products

Apparel

Fruit of the Loom Inc. (FOL), headquartered in Bowling Green, Kentucky, is primarily a manufacturer and distributor of basic apparel, underwear, casualwear, athletic apparel and sports equipment. Products under the Fruit of the Loom and JERZEES labels are primarily sold in the mass merchandise, mid-tier chains and wholesale markets. In the Vanity Fair Brands product line, Vassarette, Curvation and Radiant by Vanity Fair are sold in the mass merchandise market, while Vanity Fair and Lily of France products are sold to mid-tier chains and department stores. FOL also markets and sells apparel, sports equipment and balls to team dealers and athletic apparel, sports equipment and balls to sporting goods retailers under the Russell Athletic and Spalding brands. Additionally, Spalding markets and sells balls and sports equipment in the mass merchandise market and dollar store channels. In 2021, a significant portion of FOL’s sales were to Walmart Inc. (Walmart).

FOL generally performs its own knitting, cloth finishing, cutting, sewing and packaging for apparel. For the North American market, which is FOL’s predominant sales region, cloth manufacturing is primarily performed in Honduras. Labor-intensive cutting, sewing and packaging operations are in Central America, the Caribbean and Vietnam. For the European market, products are either sourced from third-party contractors in Europe or Asia or sewn in Morocco from textiles internally produced in Morocco. Bras, athletic equipment, sporting goods, and other athletic apparel lines are generally sourced from third-party contractors located primarily in Asia.

Garan Incorporated (Garan), headquartered in New York, New York designs, manufactures, imports and sells apparel primarily for children, including boys, girls, toddlers and infants. Products are sold under its own trademarks Garanimals and 365 Kids from Garanimals, as well as customer private label brands. Garan conducts its business through operating subsidiaries located in the United States, Central America, and Asia. Garan’s products are sold through its distribution centers in the United States. Fechheimer Brothers Company (Fechheimers) manufactures and distributes uniforms, principally for the public service and safety markets, including police, fire, postal and military markets. Fechheimers is based in Cincinnati, Ohio.

The BH Shoe Holdings Group, headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut, manufactures and distributes work, rugged outdoor and casual shoes and western-style footwear under a number of brand names, including Justin, Tony Lama, Chippewa, BØRN, B•Ø•C, Carolina, EuroSofft, Söfft, Double-H Boots, Nursemates and Comfortiva. Brooks Sports, Inc., headquartered in Seattle, Washington, markets and sells performance running footwear and apparel to specialty and national retailers and directly to consumers under the Brooks brand. A significant volume of the shoes sold by Berkshire’s shoe businesses are manufactured or purchased from sources located outside the United States. Products are sold worldwide through a variety of channels, including department stores, footwear chains, specialty stores, catalogs, and the Internet, as well as through company-owned retail stores.

Other Consumer Products

Forest River, Inc. (Forest River) is a manufacturer of recreational vehicles (RV), utility cargo trailers, buses and pontoon boats, headquartered in Elkhart, Indiana with products sold in the United States and Canada through an independent dealer network. Forest River has numerous manufacturing facilities located in six states and is a leading manufacturer of RVs with numerous brand names, including Forest River, Coachmen RV and Prime Time. Utility cargo trailers are sold under a variety of brand names. Buses are sold under several brand names, including Starcraft Bus. Pontoon boats are sold under the Berkshire, South Bay and Trifecta brand names.

Forest River is subject to regulations of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, the safety standards for recreational vehicles established by the U.S. Department of Transportation and similar laws and regulations issued by the Canadian government. Forest River is a member of the Recreational Vehicle Industry Association, a voluntary association of recreational vehicle manufacturers, which promotes safety standards for recreational vehicles. Forest River’s products comply in all material respects to the standards that govern its products.

The Duracell Company (Duracell), headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, is a leading manufacturer of high-performance alkaline batteries. Duracell manufactures batteries in the U.S., Europe and China; and provides a network of worldwide sales and distribution centers. Costco and Walmart are significant customers, representing approximately 30% of Duracell’s annual revenue.

Albecca Inc. (Albecca), headquartered in Suwanee, Georgia, operates in the U.S., Canada and 12 other countries, with products primarily under the Larson-Juhl name. Albecca designs, manufactures and distributes a complete line of high quality, branded custom framing products, including wood and metal moulding, matboard, foamboard, glass and framing supplies. Complementary to its framing products, Albecca offers art printing and fulfillment services.

Richline Group, Inc., headquartered in New York, New York, operates five strategic business units: Richline Jewelry, Richline Digital, LeachGarner, Rio Grande and Inverness. Each business unit is a manufacturer and/or distributor of precious metal, non-precious metal, diamond and gem products to specific target markets, including large jewelry chains, department stores, shopping networks, mass merchandisers, e-commerce retailers and artisans plus worldwide manufacturers and wholesalers and the medical, electronics and aerospace industries.

Service and Retailing Businesses

Service Businesses

Berkshire’s service businesses provide grocery and foodservice distribution, professional aviation training programs, shared aircraft ownership programs and distribution of electronic components. Other service businesses include franchising and servicing of quick service restaurants, media businesses (television and information distribution), as well as logistics businesses.

McLane

McLane Company, Inc. (McLane) provides wholesale distribution services in all 50 states to customers that include convenience stores, discount retailers, wholesale clubs, drug stores, military bases, quick service restaurants and casual dining restaurants. McLane provides wholesale distribution services to Walmart, which accounted for approximately 16.5% of McLane’s revenues in 2021. McLane’s other significant customers include 7-Eleven (approximately 13.9% of revenues) and Yum! Brands (approximately 11.5% of revenues). Operations are divided into three business units: grocery distribution, foodservice distribution and beverage distribution.

McLane’s grocery distribution unit, based in Temple, Texas, maintains a dominant market share within the convenience store industry and serves most of the national convenience store chains and major oil company retail outlets. Grocery operations provide products to approximately 48,600 retail locations nationwide, including Walmart. McLane’s grocery distribution unit operates 25 distribution facilities in 20 states.

McLane’s foodservice distribution unit, based in Carrollton, Texas, focuses on serving the quick service and casual dining restaurant industry with high quality, timely-delivered products. Operations are conducted through 47 facilities in 22 states. The foodservice distribution unit services approximately 34,000 restaurants nationwide. Through its subsidiaries, McLane also operates wholesale distributors of distilled spirits, wine and beer. The beverage unit operates as Empire Distributors and operations are conducted through 14 distribution centers in Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Colorado. Empire Distributors services approximately 26,500 retail locations in the southeastern United States and Colorado.

FlightSafety

FlightSafety International Inc. (FlightSafety) is an industry leading provider of professional aviation training services and flight simulation products. FlightSafety and FlightSafety Textron Aviation Training, a joint venture with Textron, which began operations in 2019, provide high technology training to pilots, aircraft maintenance technicians, flight attendants and dispatchers who operate and support a wide variety of business, commercial and military aircraft. The training is provided using a large fleet of advanced full flight simulators at learning centers and training locations in the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Compliance with applicable environmental regulations is an inherent requirement to operate the facilities. The vast majority of the instructors, training programs and flight simulators are qualified by the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other aviation regulatory agencies around the world.

FlightSafety is also a leader in the design and manufacture of full flight simulators, visual systems, displays and other advanced technology training devices. This equipment is used to support FlightSafety training programs and is offered for sale to airlines and government and military organizations around the world. Manufacturing facilities are located in Oklahoma, Missouri and Texas. FlightSafety strives to maintain and manufacture simulators and develop courseware using state-of-the-art technology; and invests in research and development as it builds new equipment and training programs.

NetJets

NetJets Inc. (NetJets) is the world’s leading provider of shared ownership programs for general aviation aircraft. NetJets’ global headquarters is located in Columbus, Ohio, with most of its logistical and flight operations based at John Glenn Columbus International Airport. NetJets’ European operations are based in Lisbon, Portugal.

NetJets’ shared aircraft ownership programs permit customers to acquire a specific percentage of a certain aircraft type and allows customers to utilize the aircraft for a specified number of flight hours annually. In addition, NetJets offers prepaid flight cards and other aviation solutions and services for aircraft management, customized aircraft sales and acquisition, ground support and flight operation services under a number of programs, including NetJets Shares, NetJets Leases, and the NetJets Card Program.

NetJets is subject to the rules and regulations of the FAA, the Portuguese Civil Aviation Authority, and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency. Regulations address aircraft registration, maintenance requirements, pilot qualifications and airport operations, including flight planning and scheduling, as well as security issues and other matters. NetJets maintains a comprehensive training and development program in compliance with regulatory requirements for pilots, flight attendants, maintenance mechanics, and other flight operations specialists.

TTI

TTI, Inc. (TTI), headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, is a global specialty distributor of passive, interconnect, electromechanical, discrete, and semiconductor components used by customers in the manufacturing and assembling of electronic products. TTI’s customer base includes original equipment manufacturers, electronic manufacturing services, original design manufacturers and military, and commercial customers, as well as design and system engineers. TTI operates sales offices and distribution centers from more than 100 locations throughout North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Israel.

TTI services a variety of industries, including telecommunications, medical devices, computers and office equipment, military/aerospace, automotive and industrial electronics. TTI’s core customers include businesses in the design through production stages in the electronic component supply chain, which supports its high-volume business, and its Mouser (Mouser Electronics, Inc.) subsidiary, which supports a broader base of customers with lower volume purchases through internet-based marketing.

Other Services

XTRA Corporation (XTRA), headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, is a leading transportation equipment lessor operating under the XTRA Lease brand name. XTRA manages a diverse fleet of approximately 87,000 units located at 47 facilities throughout the United States. The fleet includes over-the-road and storage trailers, chassis, temperature-controlled vans and flatbed trailers. XTRA is one of the largest lessors (in terms of units available) of over-the-road trailers in North America. Transportation equipment customers lease equipment to cover cyclical, seasonal and geographic needs; and as a substitute for purchasing equipment. Therefore, as a provider of marginal capacity to its customers, XTRA’s utilization rates and operating results tend to be cyclical. In addition, transportation providers often use leasing to maximize their asset utilization. By maintaining a large fleet, XTRA is able to provide customers with a broad selection of equipment and quick response times.

International Dairy Queen Inc. develops and services a worldwide system of over 7,000 franchised restaurants operating primarily under the names DQ Grill and Chill, Dairy Queen and Orange Julius that offer various dairy desserts, beverages, prepared foods and blended fruit drinks. Business Wire Inc. (Business Wire) transmits full-text news releases, regulatory filings, photos and other multimedia content to journalists, financial professionals, investor services, regulatory authorities and the general public. Releases are distributed globally via Business Wire’s patented NX network. CORT Business Services Corporation (CORT) is a leading national provider of rental furniture and related services in the rent-to-rent segment of the furniture rental industry. CORT’s primary revenue streams include furniture rental to individuals, businesses, government agencies, the trade show and events industry and retail sales of new and used furniture. WPLG, Inc. is an ABC affiliate broadcast station in Miami, Florida; and Charter Brokerage Holdings Corp. is a leading non-asset based third party logistics provider to the petroleum and chemical industries.

Retailing Businesses

Berkshire’s retailing businesses include automotive, home furnishings and several other operations that sell various consumer products. Berkshire’s retailing businesses employed approximately 26,000 people at the end of 2021. Information regarding each of these operations follows.

Berkshire Hathaway Automotive, Inc. (BHA)

BHA and its affiliates is one of the largest automotive retailers in the United States, operating 105 new vehicle franchises through 82 dealerships located primarily in major metropolitan markets in the United States. The dealerships sell new and used vehicles, vehicle maintenance and repair services, extended service contracts, vehicle protection products and other aftermarket products. BHA also arranges financing for its customers through third-party lenders. BHA operates 28 collision centers directly connected to the dealerships’ operations; and owns and operates two auto auctions and a fluid maintenance products distribution company.

Dealership operations are highly concentrated in the Arizona and Texas markets, with approximately 75% of dealership-related revenues derived from sales in these markets. BHA maintains franchise agreements with 27 different vehicle manufacturers, although it derives a significant portion of its revenue from the Toyota/Lexus, General Motors, Ford/Lincoln, Nissan/Infiniti and Honda/Acura brands. Approximately 90% of BHA’s annual revenues are from dealerships representing these manufacturers. BHA’s overall relationships with the automobile manufacturers are governed by framework agreements.

Individual dealerships operate under franchise agreements with the manufacturer, which grants the dealership entity a non-exclusive right to sell the manufacturer’s brand of vehicles; and offer related parts and service within a specified market area, as well as the right to use the manufacturer’s trademarks. The agreements contain various requirements and restrictions related to the management and operation of the franchised dealership; and provide for termination of the agreement by the manufacturer or non-renewal for a variety of causes.

BHA also develops, underwrites, and administers various vehicle protection plans, as well as life and accident and health insurance plans sold to consumers through BHA’s dealerships and third-party dealerships. BHA also develops proprietary training programs and materials and provides ongoing monitoring and training of the dealership’s finance and insurance personnel.

Home furnishings retailing

The home furnishings businesses consist of Nebraska Furniture Mart Inc. (NFM); R.C. Willey Home Furnishings (R.C. Willey); Star Furniture Company (Star); and Jordan’s Furniture, Inc. (Jordan’s). These businesses offer a wide selection of furniture, bedding and accessories. In addition, NFM and R.C. Willey sell a full line of major household appliances, electronics, computers and other home furnishings; and offer customer financing to complement their retail operations.

NFM operates its business from four retail complexes with almost 4.5 million square feet of retail, warehouse and administrative facilities located in Omaha, Nebraska, Clive, Iowa, Kansas City, Kansas and The Colony, Texas. NFM also owns Homemakers Furniture located in Urbandale, Iowa, which has approximately 600,000 square feet of retail, warehouse and administrative space. NFM is the largest furniture retailer in each of these markets. R.C. Willey, based in Salt Lake City, Utah, operates eleven full-line retail home furnishings stores and three distribution centers. These facilities include approximately 1.5 million square feet of retail space with five stores located in Utah, one store in Meridian, Idaho, three stores in Nevada (Las Vegas and Reno), and two stores in the Sacramento, California area.

Jordan’s operates a retail furniture business from seven locations with approximately 890,000 square feet of retail space in stores located in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Maine, and Connecticut. The retail stores are supported by an 800,000 square foot distribution center in Taunton, Massachusetts. Jordan’s is the largest furniture retailer, as measured by sales, in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. Jordan’s is well known in its markets for its unique store arrangements and advertising campaigns. Star has operated home furnishings retail stores in Texas for many years. Star’s retail facilities include about 700,000 square feet of retail space in 10 locations in Texas, including seven in Houston.

Other Retailing

Borsheim Jewelry Company, Inc. (Borsheims) operates from a single store in Omaha, Nebraska. Borsheims is a high-volume retailer of fine jewelry, watches, crystal, China, stemware, flatware, gifts and collectibles. Helzberg’s Diamond Shops, LLC (Helzberg) is based in North Kansas City, Missouri; and operates a chain of 173 retail jewelry stores in 34 states, including approximately 400,000 square feet of retail space. Helzberg’s stores are located in malls, lifestyle centers, power strip centers and outlet malls; and all stores operate under the name Helzberg Diamonds or Helzberg Diamonds Outlet. The Ben Bridge Corporation (Ben Bridge Jeweler), based in Seattle, Washington, operates 74 retail jewelry stores under three different brand names, located primarily in major shopping malls in nine western states and in British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-five of its retail locations are upscale jewelry stores selling loose diamonds, finished jewelry, and high-end timepieces. Thirty-eight of its retail locations are concept stores operating under a franchise agreement that sell only Pandora jewelry. One store is a Breitling concept store, selling only Breitling timepieces.

See’s Candy Shops, Incorporated (See’s) produces boxed chocolates and other confectionery products with an emphasis on quality and distinctiveness in two large kitchens in Los Angeles and South San Francisco and a facility in Burlingame, California. See’s operates approximately 250 retail and volume saving stores located mainly in California and other Western states, as well as over 125 seasonal locations. See’s revenues are highly seasonal with approximately half of its annual revenues earned in the fourth quarter.

The Pampered Chef, Ltd. (Pampered Chef) is a premier direct seller of distinctive high-quality kitchenware products with sales and operations in the United States, Canada, Germany, Austria and France; and operations in China. Pampered Chef’s product portfolio consists of approximately 420 Pampered Chef branded kitchenware items in categories ranging from stoneware and cutlery to grilling and entertaining. Pampered Chef’s products are available through its sales force of independent cooking consultants and online.

Oriental Trading Company (OTC) is a leading multi-channel retailer and online destination for fun-value-priced party supplies, seasonal products, arts and crafts, toys and novelties, school supplies, educational games and patient giveaways. OTC, headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, serves a broad base of nearly four million customers annually, including consumers, schools, churches, non-profit organizations, medical and dental offices, online marketplaces and other businesses. OTC offers a unique assortment of over 80,000 fun products emphasizing proprietary designs. OTC operates both direct-to-consumer and business-to-business brands, including Oriental Trading, Fun Express, MindWare, SmileMakers, Morris Costumes and HalloweenExpress.com; and utilizes digital and print marketing along with dedicated sales teams to drive traffic and industry-leading customer satisfaction.

Detlev Louis Motorrad (Louis), headquartered in Hamburg, Germany, is a leading retailer of motorcycle apparel and equipment in Europe. Louis carries over 32,000 different products from more than 600 manufacturers, primarily covering the clothing, technical equipment and leisure markets. Louis has over 80 stores in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands; and also sells via the Internet throughout most of Europe.

The Kraft Heinz Company (Kraft Heinz)

Berkshire owns 26.6% of the outstanding common stock of The Kraft Heinz Company (Kraft Heinz). Kraft Heinz is one of the largest food and beverage companies in the world, with sales in numerous countries within developed and emerging markets and territories. Kraft Heinz manufactures and markets food and beverage products, including condiments and sauces, cheese and dairy meals, meats, refreshment beverages, coffee and other grocery products, throughout the world, under a diverse mix of iconic and emerging brands. Berkshire subsidiaries also own a 50% joint venture interest in Berkadia Commercial Mortgage LLC; a 38.6% interest in Pilot Travel Centers LLC; a 50% joint venture interest in Electric Transmission Texas, LLC; and a 50% noncontrolling interest in Iroquois Gas Transmission System L.P.

Properties

The properties used by Berkshire’s business segments are summarized in this section. Berkshire’s railroad and utilities and energy businesses, in particular, utilize considerable physical assets in their businesses.

Railroad Business—Burlington Northern Santa Fe

Through BNSF Railway, BNSF operates over 32,500 route miles of track (excluding multiple main tracks, yard tracks and sidings) in 28 states; and also operates in three Canadian provinces. BNSF owns over 23,000 route miles, including easements; and operates over 9,000 route miles of trackage rights that permit BNSF to operate its trains with its crews over other railroads’ tracks. As of December 31, 2021, the total BNSF Railway system, including single and multiple main tracks, yard tracks and sidings, consisted of over 50,000 operated miles of track.

BNSF operates various facilities and equipment to support its transportation system, including its infrastructure, locomotives and freight cars. It also owns or leases other equipment to support rail operations, such as vehicles. Support facilities for rail operations include yards and terminals throughout its rail network, system locomotive shops to perform locomotive servicing and maintenance, a centralized network operations center for train dispatching and network operations monitoring and management, computers, telecommunications equipment, signal systems and other support systems. Transfer facilities are maintained for rail-to-rail, as well as intermodal transfer of containers, trailers and other freight traffic; and include approximately 25 intermodal hubs located across the system. BNSF owns or holds under non-cancelable leases exceeding one year approximately 7,500 locomotives and 63,600 freight cars, in addition to maintenance of way and other equipment.

Utilities and Energy Businesses—BHE

BHE’s energy properties consist of the physical assets necessary to support its electricity and natural gas businesses. Properties of BHE’s electricity businesses include electric generation, transmission and distribution facilities, as well as coal mining assets that support certain of BHE’s electric generating facilities. Properties of BHE’s natural gas businesses include natural gas distribution facilities, interstate pipelines, storage facilities, liquefied natural gas facilities, compressor stations and meter stations. The transmission and distribution assets are primarily within each of BHE’s utility service territories. In addition to these physical assets, BHE has rights-of-way, mineral rights and water rights that enable BHE to utilize its facilities.

As of December 31, 2021, BHE’s subsidiaries also had electric generating facilities that were under construction in Nevada, Iowa and Canada having total Facility Net Capacity and Net Owned Capacity of 421 MW.

PacifiCorp, MEC and NV Energy own electric transmission and distribution systems, including approximately 27,700 miles of transmission lines and approximately 1,660 substations and gas distribution facilities, including approximately 27,700 miles of gas mains and service lines.

Northern Powergrid (Northeast) and Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) operate an electricity distribution network that includes approximately 17,400 miles of overhead lines; approximately 43,300 miles of underground cables; and approximately 780 major substations. AltaLink’s electricity transmission system includes approximately 8,200 miles of transmission lines and approximately 310 substations.

The BHE GT&S pipeline system consists of approximately 5,400 miles of natural gas transmission, gathering and storage pipelines located in portions of Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia. Storage services are provided through the operation of 17 underground natural gas storage fields located in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and New York. BHE GT&S also operates, as the general partner, and owns a 25% limited partnership interest in one liquefied natural gas export, import and storage facility in Maryland and operates and has ownership interests in three modular liquefied natural gas facilities in Alabama, Florida and Pennsylvania.

Northern Natural’s pipeline system consists of approximately 14,300 miles of natural gas pipelines, including approximately 5,800 miles of mainline transmission pipelines and approximately 8,500 miles of branch and lateral pipelines. Northern Natural’s end-use and distribution market area includes points in Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, Michigan and Illinois; and its natural gas supply and delivery service area includes points in Kansas, Texas, Oklahoma and New Mexico. Storage services are provided through the operation of one underground natural gas storage field in Iowa, two underground natural gas storage facilities in Kansas and two liquefied natural gas storage peaking units, one in Iowa and one in Minnesota.

Kern River’s system consists of approximately 1,400 miles of natural gas pipelines, which extends from the system’s point of origination in Wyoming through the Central Rocky Mountains into California.

History

Berkshire Hathaway Inc. was founded in 1839.

Country
Industry:
Conglomerates
Founded:
1998
IPO Date:
10/14/1976
ISIN Number:
I_US0846701086
Address:
3555 Farnam Street, Omaha, Nebraska, 68131, United States
Phone Number
402 346 1400

Key Executives

CEO:
Buffett, Warren
CFO
Hamburg, Marc
COO:
Data Unavailable