About Berkshire Hathaway Inc
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. (Berkshire), through its subsidiaries, engages in various business activities, including insurance and reinsurance, freight rail transportation, utilities and energy, manufacturing, service and retailing. The company also owns and operates numerous other businesses engaged in a variety of manufacturing, services, retailing and other activities. Insurance and Reinsurance Businesses Berkshire’s insurance and reinsurance business activities are conducted through numerous domestic and foreign-based insurance subsidiaries. Berkshire’s insurance subsidiaries provide insurance and reinsurance of property and casualty risks and reinsurance of life and health risks worldwide. Reinsurance contracts are normally classified as treaty or facultative contracts. Treaty reinsurance refers to reinsurance coverage for all or a portion of a specified group or class of risks ceded by a direct insurer or reinsurer, while facultative reinsurance involves coverage of specific individual underlying risks. Reinsurance contracts are further classified as quota-share or excess. Under quota-share (proportional or pro-rata) reinsurance, the reinsurer shares proportionally in the original premiums and losses of the direct insurer or reinsurer. Excess (or non-proportional) reinsurance provides for the indemnification of the direct insurer or reinsurer for all or a portion of the loss in excess of an agreed upon amount or ‘retention.’ Both quota-share and excess reinsurance contracts may provide for aggregate limits of indemnification. Berkshire’s insurance group operates in some countries through subsidiaries and in some countries through branches of subsidiaries. Berkshire insurance subsidiaries are located in several countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom (U.K.), Ireland, Australia and South Africa, and also maintain branches in several other countries. Berkshire’s international insurance companies are also subject to multinational application of certain U.S. laws. Alleghany Corporation (Alleghany), based in New York, New York, was acquired by Berkshire in October 2022. Alleghany’s operating subsidiaries include property and casualty reinsurance and insurance, as well as a portfolio of non-financial businesses. Information regarding Alleghany’s primary insurance and reinsurance activities is provided in the Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group and Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group sections and its non-insurance businesses are included in the manufacturing and services sections. Berkshire’s insurance underwriting operations include GEICO, Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group and Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group. GEICO—GEICO’s insurance subsidiaries consist of Government Employees Insurance Company, GEICO General Insurance Company, GEICO Indemnity Company, GEICO Casualty Company, GEICO Advantage Insurance Company, GEICO Choice Insurance Company, GEICO Secure Insurance Company, GEICO County Mutual Insurance Company, GEICO Texas County Mutual Insurance Company and GEICO Marine Insurance Company. The GEICO companies primarily offer private passenger automobile insurance to individuals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. GEICO also provides insurance for motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, recreational vehicles, boats and small commercial fleets and acts as an agent for other insurers who offer homeowners, renters, life and identity management insurance to individuals desiring insurance coverages other than those offered by GEICO. GEICO’s marketing is primarily through direct response methods in which applications for insurance are submitted directly to the companies via the Internet or by telephone, and to a lesser extent, through captive agents. GEICO conducts business through regional service centers and claims adjustment and other facilities in 39 states. GEICO competes for private passenger automobile insurance customers in the preferred, standard and non-standard risk markets with other companies that sell directly to the customer and with companies that use agency sales forces, including State Farm, Allstate, Progressive and USAA. Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group—The Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group (BH Primary) is a collection of independently managed insurers that provide a wide variety of insurance coverages to policyholders located principally in the U.S. These various operations are discussed below: National Indemnity Company (NICO), domiciled in Nebraska, and certain affiliates (NICO Primary) underwrite commercial motor vehicle and general liability insurance on an admitted basis and on an excess and surplus basis. Insurance coverages are offered nationwide primarily through insurance agents and brokers. The Berkshire Hathaway Homestate Companies (BHHC) is a group of insurers offering workers’ compensation, commercial automobile and commercial property coverages to a diverse client base. BHHC has a national reach, with the ability to provide first-dollar and small to large deductible workers’ compensation coverage to employers in all states, except those where coverage is available only through state-operated workers’ compensation funds. NICO Primary and BHHC are each based in Omaha, Nebraska. Berkshire Hathaway Specialty Insurance (BH Specialty) offers commercial property, casualty, healthcare professional liability, executive and professional, surety, travel, medical stop loss and homeowner’s insurance through Berkshire Hathaway Specialty Insurance Company and other Berkshire insurance affiliates. BH Specialty writes primary and excess and surplus policies on an admitted and non-admitted basis in the U.S., and on a local or foreign non-admitted basis outside the U.S. BH Specialty is based in Boston, Massachusetts, with regional offices in several U.S. cities. BH Specialty also maintains international offices and branches located in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and several countries in Asia, Europe and the Middle East. BH Specialty writes business through wholesale and retail insurance brokers, as well as managing general agents. Alleghany’s property and casualty insurance business is conducted in the U.S. on both an admitted and non-admitted basis through RSUI Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries (RSUI) and CapSpecialty, Inc. and its subsidiaries (CapSpecialty). RSUI and CapSpecialty primarily write specialty insurance in the property, umbrella/excess liability, professional liability, directors’ and officers’ liability, and general liability lines of business. Insurance is written through independent wholesale insurance brokers, retail agents and managing general agents. MedPro Group (MedPro) is a leading provider of healthcare liability (HCL) insurance based on premiums written. MedPro provides customized HCL insurance, claims, patient safety and risk solutions to physicians, surgeons, dentists and other healthcare professionals, as well as hospitals, senior care and other healthcare facilities. Additionally, MedPro provides HCL insurance solutions to international markets through other Berkshire insurance affiliates, delivers liability insurance to other professionals, and offers specialized accident and health insurance solutions to colleges and other customers through its subsidiaries and other Berkshire insurance affiliates. MedPro is based in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The U.S. Liability Insurance Company (USLI) includes a group of five specialty insurers that underwrite commercial, professional and personal lines of insurance on an admitted basis, as well as on an excess and surplus basis. USLI markets policies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Canada through wholesale and retail insurance agents. USLI companies also underwrite and market a wide variety of specialty insurance products. USLI is based in Wayne, Pennsylvania. Berkshire Hathaway GUARD Insurance Companies (GUARD) is a group of five insurance companies that provide a full suite of commercial insurance products, as well as homeowners policies to over 350,000 small to mid-sized businesses and homeowners. These offerings are made through independent agents and retail and wholesale brokers. GUARD is based in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Berkshire Hathaway Direct Insurance Company and its affiliates (BH Direct) offer commercial insurance products (including workers’ compensation, property, auto, general and professional liability) to small business customers. BH Direct’s products are primarily sold through two internet-based distribution platforms, biBERK.com and Threeinsurance.com. BH Direct writes policies on an admitted basis and is based in Stamford, Connecticut. MLMIC Insurance Company (MLMIC) is a leading writer of medical professional liability insurance in New York State. MLMIC distributes the majority of its policies on a direct basis to medical and dental professionals, health care providers and hospitals. Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group—Berkshire’s combined global reinsurance business, referred to as the Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group (BHRG), offers a wide range of coverages on property, casualty, life and health risks to insurers and reinsurers worldwide. BHRG conducts business activities in 27 countries. Reinsurance business is written through NICO and several other Berkshire insurance subsidiaries (NICO Group), General Re Corporation, and its subsidiaries (General Re Group) and Alleghany’s Transatlantic Reinsurance Company and affiliates (TransRe Group). The NICO Group and Gen Re Group underwriting operations in the U.S. are based in Stamford, Connecticut and the TransRe Group is based in New York, New York. Property/Casualty The NICO Group offers traditional property/casualty reinsurance on both an excess-of-loss and a quota-share basis, catastrophe excess-of-loss treaty and facultative reinsurance, and primary insurance on an excess-of-loss basis for large or unusual risks. The type and volume of business written by the NICO Group may vary significantly from period to period resulting from changes in perceived premium rate adequacy and from unique or large transactions. A significant portion of NICO Group’s annual reinsurance premium volume derives from a 20% quota-share agreement with Insurance Australia Group Limited (IAG) that incepted in 2015. The agreement was renewed, and extended, effective January 1, 2023, with an expiration of December 31, 2029. IAG is a multi-line insurer in Australia, New Zealand and other Asia-Pacific countries. The General Re Group conducts a global property and casualty reinsurance business. Reinsurance contracts are written on both a quota-share and excess basis for multiple lines of business. Contracts are primarily in the form of treaties, and to a lesser degree, on a facultative basis. General Re Group conducts business in North America, primarily marketed on a direct basis through General Reinsurance Corporation (GRC), which is licensed in the District of Columbia and all states, except Hawaii, where it is an accredited reinsurer. GRC also conducts operations in North America through 11 branch offices in the U.S. and Canada. In North America, the General Re Group includes General Star National Insurance Company, General Star Indemnity Company and Genesis Insurance Company, which offer a broad array of specialty and surplus lines and property, casualty and professional liability coverages. Such business is marketed through a select group of wholesale brokers, managing general underwriters and program administrators, and offers solutions for the unique needs of public entity, commercial and captive customers. General Re Group’s international reinsurance business is conducted on a direct basis through General Reinsurance AG, based in Cologne, Germany, and through subsidiaries and branches in numerous other countries. International business is also written through brokers, including Faraday Underwriting Limited (Faraday), a subsidiary. Faraday owns the managing agent of Syndicate 435 at Lloyd’s of London and provides capacity and participates in 100% of the results of Syndicate 435. The TransRe Group provides pro-rata and excess-of-loss reinsurance across various property and casualty lines of business. Contracts are written on both a treaty and facultative basis to insurance and other reinsurance companies in the U.S. and in foreign markets through subsidiaries and branches in numerous countries. Business is written primarily through brokers, and to a lesser extent on a direct basis. Life/Health The General Re Group conducts a global life and health reinsurance business. In the U.S. and internationally, the General Re Group writes life, disability, supplemental health, critical illness and long-term care coverages. The life/health business is marketed on a direct basis. Life/health net premiums written by the General Re Group in 2022 were primarily in the Asia Pacific, the U.S. and Western Europe. Berkshire Hathaway Life Insurance Company of Nebraska (BHLN) and its affiliates write reinsurance covering various forms of traditional life insurance exposures. BHLN and affiliates are parties to contracts that reinsure certain guaranteed minimum death, income and similar benefit risks on closed-blocks of variable annuity risks under reinsurance contracts, with the most recent contract incepting in 2014. Retroactive Reinsurance NICO also occasionally writes retroactive reinsurance contracts. Retroactive reinsurance contracts indemnify ceding companies against the adverse development of claims arising from loss events that have already occurred under property and casualty policies issued in prior years. Coverages under such contracts are provided on an excess basis (above a stated retention) or for losses payable after the inception of the contract with no additional ceding company retention. Contracts are normally subject to aggregate limits of indemnification, which can be exceptionally large in amount. Significant amounts of asbestos, environmental and latent injury claims may arise under these contracts. Periodic Payment Annuity BHLN writes periodic payment annuity insurance policies and reinsures annuity-like obligations. Under these policies, BHLN receives upfront consideration and agrees in the future to make periodic payments that often extend for decades. These policies generally relate to the settlement of underlying personal injury or workers’ compensation claims of other insurers, known as structured settlements. Investments of insurance businesses—Berkshire’s insurance subsidiaries hold significant levels of invested assets. Investment portfolios are managed by Berkshire’s Chief Executive Officer and Berkshire’s other investment managers. Investments include a very large portfolio of publicly traded equity securities, which is unusually concentrated in relatively few issuers, as well as fixed maturity securities and cash and short-term investments. Railroad Business—Burlington Northern Santa Fe Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC (BNSF) is based in Fort Worth, Texas, and through BNSF Railway Company (BNSF Railway) operates one of the largest railroad systems in North America. BNSF also operates a relatively smaller third-party logistics services business. In serving the Midwest, Pacific Northwest, Western, Southwestern and Southeastern regions and ports of the U.S., BNSF transports a range of products and commodities derived from manufacturing, agricultural and natural resource industries. Freight revenues are covered by contractual agreements of varying durations or common carrier published prices or company quotations. BNSF’s financial performance is influenced by, among other things, general and industry economic conditions at the international, national and regional levels. BNSF’s primary routes, including trackage rights, allow it to access major cities and ports in the western and southern U.S., as well as parts of Canada and Mexico. In addition to major cities and ports, BNSF Railway efficiently serves many smaller markets by working closely with approximately 200 shortline railroads. BNSF Railway has also entered into marketing agreements with other rail carriers, expanding the marketing reach for each railroad and their customers. Regulatory Matters Rail operations are subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board (STB), the Federal Railroad Administration of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as well as other federal and state regulatory agencies and Canadian regulatory agencies for operations in Canada. The DOT, OSHA, and EPA have jurisdiction under several federal statutes over a number of safety, health, and environmental aspects of rail operations, including the transportation of hazardous materials. BNSF Railway’s primary rail competitor in the Western region of the U.S. is the Union Pacific Railroad Company. Competition BNSF Railway’s primary rail competitor in the Western region of the U.S. is the Union Pacific Railroad Company. Utilities and Energy Businesses—Berkshire Hathaway Energy Berkshire holds a 92% ownership interest in Berkshire Hathaway Energy Company (BHE), based in Des Moines, Iowa. BHE is a global energy company with subsidiaries and affiliates that generate, transmit, store, distribute and supply energy. BHE’s domestic regulated energy interests are consisted of four regulated U.S. utility companies (collectively, U.S. utilities) serving approximately 5.2 million retail customers and five U.S. interstate natural gas pipeline companies with approximately 21,200 miles of operated pipeline having a design capacity of approximately 21 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day. Other energy businesses include electric transmission and distribution operations in Great Britain and Canada, a diversified portfolio of mostly renewable independent power projects and investments, and a liquefied natural gas export, import and storage facility. BHE also owns a residential real estate brokerage firm in the U.S. and a large network of residential real estate brokerage franchises in the U.S. General Matters BHE’s U.S. utilities include PacifiCorp, MidAmerican Energy Company (MEC) and NV Energy, Inc.’s (NV Energy) two regulated utility subsidiaries, Nevada Power Company (Nevada Power) and Sierra Pacific Power Company (Sierra Pacific). PacifiCorp is a regulated electric utility company headquartered in Oregon, serving electric customers in portions of Utah, Oregon, Wyoming, Washington, Idaho and California. The combined service territory’s diverse regional economy ranges from rural, agricultural and mining areas to urban, manufacturing and government service centers. In addition to retail sales, PacifiCorp sells electricity on a wholesale basis. MidAmerican Energy Company (MEC) is a regulated electric and natural gas utility company headquartered in Iowa, serving electric and natural gas customers primarily in Iowa and also in portions of Illinois, South Dakota and Nebraska. MEC has a diverse retail customer base consisting of urban and rural residential customers and a variety of commercial and industrial customers. In addition to retail sales and natural gas transportation, MEC sells electricity and natural gas on a wholesale basis. Nevada Power serves retail electric customers in southern Nevada and Sierra Pacific serves retail electric and natural gas customers in northern Nevada. The combined Nevada Power/Sierra Pacific service territory economy includes gaming, mining, recreation, warehousing, manufacturing and governmental services. In addition to retail sales and natural gas transportation, these utilities sell electricity and natural gas on a wholesale basis. As vertically integrated utilities, BHE’s U.S. utilities collectively own approximately 29,500 net megawatts of generation capacity in operation and under construction. The U.S. utilities’ business is subject to seasonal variations principally related to the use of electricity for air conditioning and natural gas for heating. Typically, regulated electric revenues are higher in the summer months, while regulated natural gas revenues are higher in the winter months. The natural gas pipelines consist of BHE GT&S, LLC (BHE GT&S), Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural) and Kern River Gas Transmission Company (Kern River). BHE GT&S was acquired in November 2020. BHE GT&S, based in Virginia, operates three interstate natural gas pipeline systems that consist of approximately 5,400 miles of natural gas transmission, gathering and storage pipelines and operates seventeen underground natural gas storage fields in the eastern region of the U.S. BHE GT&S’s large underground natural gas storage assets and pipeline systems are part of an interconnected gas transmission network that provides transportation services to utilities and numerous other customers. BHE GT&S is also an industry leader in liquefied natural gas solutions through its investments in and ownership of several liquefied natural gas facilities located throughout the eastern region of the U.S. Northern Natural, based in Nebraska, operates the largest interstate natural gas pipeline system in the U.S., as measured by pipeline miles, reaching from west Texas to Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Northern Natural’s pipeline system consists of approximately 14,400 miles of natural gas pipelines. Northern Natural’s extensive pipeline system, which is interconnected with many interstate and intrastate pipelines in the national grid system, has access to supplies from multiple major supply basins and provides transportation services to utilities and numerous other customers. Northern Natural also operates three underground natural gas storage facilities and two liquefied natural gas storage peaking units. Northern Natural’s pipeline system experiences significant seasonal swings in demand and revenue, with the highest demand typically occurring during the months of November through March. Kern River, based in Utah, operates an interstate natural gas pipeline system that consists of approximately 1,400 miles and extends from supply areas in the Rocky Mountains to consuming markets in Utah, Nevada and California. Kern River transports natural gas for electric and natural gas distribution utilities, major oil and natural gas companies or affiliates of such companies, electric generating companies, energy marketing and trading companies, and financial institutions. Other energy businesses include Northern Powergrid (Northeast) plc and Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) plc, which own a substantial electricity distribution network that delivers electricity to end-users in northeast England in an area covering approximately 10,000 square miles. These distribution companies primarily charge supply companies regulated tariffs for the use of their distribution systems and serve about 4.0 million electricity end-users. AltaLink L.P. (AltaLink) is a regulated electric transmission-only utility company headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. AltaLink’s high voltage transmission lines and related facilities transmit electricity from generating facilities to major load centers, cities and large industrial plants throughout its 87,000 square mile service territory. AltaLink serves approximately 85% of Alberta’s population. BHE and its subsidiaries, also own interests in independent power projects having approximately 6,000 net megawatts of generation capacity that are in service in California, Texas, Illinois, Nebraska, Montana, Australia, New York, Arizona, Canada, Minnesota, Kansas, Iowa and Hawaii. These independent power projects sell power generated primarily from wind, solar, geothermal and hydro sources under long-term contracts. Regulatory Matters The U.S. utilities are subject to comprehensive regulation by various federal, state and local agencies. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is an independent agency with broad authority to implement provisions of the Federal Power Act, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and other federal statutes. MEC is also subject to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, with respect to its 25% ownership of the Quad Cities Nuclear Station. Northern Powergrid (Northeast) plc and Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) plc each charge fees for the use of their distribution systems that are controlled by a formula prescribed by the British electricity regulatory body, the Gas and Electricity Markets Authority. The eight-year price control period runs from April 1, 2015 through March 31, 2023 and the next price control period is set for the five-year period ending March 31, 2028. AltaLink is regulated by the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC), pursuant to the Electric Utilities Act (Alberta), the Public Utilities Act (Alberta), the Alberta Utilities Commission Act (Alberta) and the Hydro and Electric Energy Act (Alberta). The AUC is an independent quasi-judicial agency, which regulates and oversees Alberta’s electricity transmission sector with broad authority that may impact many of AltaLink’s activities, including its tariffs, rates, construction, operations and financing. Under the Electric Utilities Act, AltaLink prepares and files applications with the AUC for approval of tariffs to be paid by the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for the use of its transmission facilities, and the terms and conditions governing the use of those facilities. The AESO is an independent system operator in Alberta, Canada that oversees Alberta’s integrated electrical system (AIES) and wholesale electricity market. The natural gas pipeline and storage operations of BHE GT&S, Northern Natural and Kern River are regulated by the FERC pursuant to the Natural Gas Act and the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Under this authority, the FERC regulates, among other items, rates, charges, terms and conditions of service; the construction and operation of interstate pipelines, storage and related facilities, including the extension, expansion or abandonment of such facilities; and the construction and operation of liquefied natural gas export/import facilities. Interstate natural gas pipeline companies are also subject to regulations administered by the Office of Pipeline Safety within the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, an agency of the DOT. Federal pipeline safety regulations are issued pursuant to the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, as amended, which establishes safety requirements in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of interstate natural gas pipeline facilities. Environmental Matters BHE and its energy businesses are subject to federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations regarding air quality, climate change, emissions performance standards, water quality, coal ash disposal and other environmental matters that have the potential to impact current and future operations. In addition to imposing continuing compliance obligations, these laws and regulations, such as the Federal Clean Air Act, provide regulators with the authority to levy substantial penalties for noncompliance, including fines, injunctive relief and other sanctions. The Federal Clean Air Act, as well as state laws and regulations impacting air emissions, provides a framework for protecting and improving the nation’s air quality and controlling sources of air emissions. These laws and regulations continue to be promulgated and implemented and will impact the operation of BHE’s generating facilities and require them to reduce emissions at those facilities to comply with the requirements. Non-Energy Businesses HomeServices of America, Inc. (HomeServices) is a residential real estate brokerage firm in the U.S. In addition to providing traditional residential real estate brokerage services, HomeServices offers other integrated real estate services, including mortgage originations and mortgage banking, title and closing services, insurance, home warranties, relocation services and other home-related services. It operates under 55 brand names with approximately 45,000 real estate agents in nearly 930 brokerage offices in 33 states and the District of Columbia. HomeServices’ franchise network includes approximately 300 franchisees and over 1,500 brokerage offices with nearly 51,000 real estate agents under two brand names, primarily in the U.S. In exchange for certain fees, HomeServices provides the right to use the Berkshire Hathaway HomeServices or Real Living brand names and other related service marks, as well as providing orientation programs, training and consultation services, advertising programs and other services. HomeServices’ principal sources of revenue are dependent on residential real estate sales, which are generally higher in the second and third quarters of each year. This business is highly competitive and subject to general real estate market conditions. Manufacturing Businesses Berkshire’s numerous and diverse manufacturing subsidiaries are grouped into three categories: industrial products, building products and consumer products. Berkshire’s industrial products businesses manufacture components for aerospace and power generation applications, specialty chemicals, metal cutting tools, and a variety of other products primarily for industrial use. The building products group produces prefabricated and site-built residential homes, flooring products, insulation, roofing and engineered products, building and engineered components, paint and coatings and bricks and masonry products. The consumer products group manufactures and distributes recreational vehicles, batteries, and various apparel, footwear and other products. Information concerning the major activities of these three groups follows. Industrial products Precision Castparts Precision Castparts Corp. (PCC) manufactures complex metal components and products, provides high-quality investment castings, forgings, fasteners/fastener systems and aerostructures for critical aerospace and power and energy applications. PCC also manufactures investment castings and forgings for general industrial, armament, medical and other applications; nickel and titanium alloys in all standard mill forms from large ingots and billets to plate, foil, sheet, strip, tubing, bar, rod, extruded shapes, rod-in-coil, wire and welding consumables, as well as cobalt alloys, for the aerospace, chemical processing, oil and gas, pollution control and other industries; fasteners for automotive and general industrial markets; specialty alloys for the investment casting and forging industries; heat treating and destructive testing services for the investment cast products and forging industries; grinder pumps and affiliated components for low-pressure sewer systems; critical auxiliary equipment and gas monitoring systems for the power generation industry; and metalworking tools for the fastener market and other applications. Investment casting technology involves a multi-step process that uses ceramic molds in the manufacture of metal components with more complex shapes, closer tolerances and finer surface finishes than parts manufactured using other methods. PCC uses this process to manufacture products for aircraft engines, industrial gas turbine and other aeroderivative engines, airframes, medical implants, armament, unmanned aerial vehicles and other industrial applications. PCC also manufactures high temperature carbon and ceramic composite components, including ceramic matrix composites, for use in next-generation aerospace engines. PCC uses forging processes to manufacture components for the aerospace and power generation markets. PCC manufactures high-performance, nickel-based alloys, as well as titanium alloys and products. PCC’s nickel-based alloys are used to produce forged components and investment castings for aerospace and non-aerospace applications in such markets as oil and gas, chemical processing and pollution control. PCC’s titanium products are used to manufacture components for the commercial and military aerospace, power generation, energy, medical, and industrial end markets. PCC is also a leading developer and manufacturer of highly engineered fasteners, fastener systems, aerostructures and precision components, primarily for critical aerospace applications. These products are produced for the aerospace and power and energy markets, as well as for construction, automotive, heavy truck, farm machinery, mining and construction equipment, shipbuilding, machine tools, medical equipment, appliances and recreation markets. PCC has several significant customers, including aerospace original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) (Boeing and Airbus) and aircraft engine manufacturer suppliers (General Electric, Rolls Royce and Pratt &Whitney). The majority of PCC’s sales are from customer orders or demand schedules pursuant to long-term agreements. Lubrizol The Lubrizol Corporation (Lubrizol) is a specialty chemical and performance materials company that manufactures products and supplies technologies for the global transportation, industrial and consumer markets. Lubrizol operates two business segments: Lubrizol Additives, which produces engine lubricant additives, driveline lubricant additives and industrial specialties products; and Lubrizol Advanced Materials, which includes engineered materials (engineered polymers and performance coatings) and life sciences (beauty and personal care, and health and home care solutions). Lubrizol Additives’ products are used in a broad range of applications, including engine oils, transmission fluids, gear oils, specialty driveline lubricants, fuels, metalworking fluids and compressor lubricants for transportation and industrial applications. Lubrizol Advanced Materials’ products are used in many different types of applications, including beauty, personal care, home care, over-the-counter pharmaceuticals, medical devices, performance coatings, sporting goods, plumbing and fire sprinkler systems. Its principal lubricant additives competitors are Infineum International Ltd., Chevron Oronite Company and Afton Chemical Corporation. Lubrizol operates its business on a global basis through more than 100 offices, laboratories, production facilities and warehouses on six continents, the most significant of which are North America, Europe, Asia and South America. Lubrizol markets its products worldwide through direct sales, sales agents and distributors. Lubrizol’s customers principally consist of major global and regional oil companies and industrial and consumer products companies. Some of Lubrizol’s largest customers also may be suppliers. IMC International Metalworking Companies IMC International Metalworking Companies (IMC) is one of the three largest multinational manufacturers of consumable precision carbide metal cutting tools for applications in a broad range of industrial end markets. IMC’s principal brand names include ISCAR, TaeguTec, Ingersoll, Tungaloy, Unitac, UOP, It.te.di, Qutiltec, Tool—Flo, PCT, IMCO and BSW. IMC’s primary manufacturing facilities are located in Israel, the U.S., South Korea, Japan, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, India and China. IMC has five primary product lines, including milling tools, gripping tools, turning/thread tools, drilling tools and tooling. The main products are split within each product line between consumable cemented tungsten carbide inserts and steel tool holders. Inserts comprise a major portion of IMC’s sales and earnings. Metal cutting inserts are used by industrial manufacturers to cut metals and are consumed during their use in cutting applications. IMC manufactures hundreds of types of highly engineered inserts within each product line that are tailored to maximize productivity and meet the technical requirements of customers. IMC’s staff of scientists and engineers continuously develop and innovate products that address end user needs and requirements. IMC’s global sales and marketing network operates in nearly every major manufacturing center around the world, staffed with highly skilled engineers and technical personnel. IMC’s customer base is very diverse, with its primary customers being large, multinational businesses in the automotive, aerospace, engineering and machinery industries. IMC operates a regional central warehouse system with locations in Israel, the U.S., Belgium, Korea, Japan and China. Additional small quantities of products are maintained at local IMC sales offices to provide on-time customer support and inventory management. Marmon Marmon Holdings, Inc. (Marmon) is a global industrial organization comprising eleven diverse business groups and more than 100 autonomous manufacturing and service businesses. Marmon’s manufacturing and service operations are conducted at approximately 400 manufacturing, distribution and service facilities located primarily in the U.S., as well as 18 other countries worldwide. Marmon’s business groups are as follows. Foodservice Technologies manufactures beverage dispensing and cooling equipment, hot and cold food preparation and holding equipment and related products for restaurants, global brand owners and other foodservice providers. Operations are based in the U.S. with manufacturing facilities in the U.S., Mexico, China, Czech Republic and Italy. Products are sold primarily throughout the U.S., Europe and Asia. Water Technologies manufactures water treatment equipment for residential, commercial and industrial applications worldwide. Operations are based primarily in the U.S., Canada, China, Singapore, India and Poland with business centers located in Belgium, France, Germany, the U.K. and Italy. Transportation Products serves the automotive, heavy-duty highway transportation and aerospace industries with precision-molded plastic components; fastener thread solutions; metal tubing; auto aftermarket transmission and chassis products; platform and lowbed trailers; and truck and trailer components. Operations and business are conducted primarily in the U.S., Mexico, Canada, Europe and Asia. Retail Solutions provides retail environment design services; in-store digital merchandising, dispensing and display fixtures; shopping, material handling and security carts. Operations and business are conducted in the U.S., the U.K. and Czech Republic. Metal Services provides specialty metal pipe, tubing and related value-added services to customers across a broad range of industries. Operations are based in the U.S., Canada and Mexico and business is conducted primarily in those countries. Electrical produces electrical wire for use in residential and commercial buildings, and specialty wire and cable for use in energy, transit, aerospace, defense, communication and other industrial applications. Operations are based in the U.S., Canada, India and England. Business is conducted globally and primarily in the U.S., Canada, India, the U.K., the United Arab Emirates and China. Plumbing & Refrigeration supplies copper tubing and copper, brass, aluminum and stainless-steel fittings and components for the plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration markets; custom coils, ducting, air handling units and heat pipe for the HVAC market; HVAC systems and structures for military, nuclear and medical markets and aluminum and brass forgings for many commercial and industrial applications. Business and operations are conducted primarily in the U.S., Canada and the U.K. Industrial Products supplies construction fasteners; masonry and stone anchoring systems used in commercial construction; two component polymer products for anchoring, bonding and repair applications, gloves and other protective wear; gear drives, gearboxes, fan and pump drives for various markets; wind machines for agricultural use; wheels, axles and gears for rail, mining and other applications; lighting products for industrial and mining; and equipment for the manufacture and assembly of lead acid batteries. Operations are primarily based in the U.S., the U.K., Canada and China and business is conducted in those countries. Rail and Leasing manufactures, leases and maintains railcars; leases intermodal tank containers; manufactures mobile railcar movers; provides in-plant rail switching and loading services; performs track construction and maintenance; and manufactures steel tank heads and cylinders. Union Tank Car Company (UTLX) is the largest component of the Rail & Leasing group and is a leading designer, builder and full-service lessor of railroad tank cars and other specialized railcars. Together with its Canadian affiliate Procor, UTLX owns a fleet of approximately 120,000 railcars for lease to customers in chemical, petrochemical, energy and agricultural/food industries. UTLX manufactures tank cars in the U.S. and performs railcar maintenance services at more than 100 locations across North America. UTLX has a diversified customer base, both geographically and across industries. UTLX, while subject to cyclicality and significant competition in most of its markets, competes by offering a broad range of high-quality products and services targeted at its niche markets. Railcars are typically leased for multiple-year terms and most of the leases are renewed upon expiration. Due to selective ongoing capital investment, utilization rates (the number of railcars on lease as a percentage of the total fleet) of the railcar fleet are generally high. Intermodal tank containers are leased through EXSIF Worldwide. EXSIF is a leading international lessor of intermodal tank containers with a fleet of approximately 74,000 units, primarily serving chemical producers and logistics operators. In May 2022, EXSIF exited its Russia business, which resulted in the sale of approximately 7,300 intermodal tank containers. Crane Services is a provider of mobile cranes and operators in North America and Australia with a combined fleet of approximately 1,100 cranes, primarily serving the energy, mining, petrochemical and infrastructure markets. Cranes are leased on either a fully operated and maintained service basis or on an equipment-only basis. The Crane Services group is subject to customer seasonality, with typical concentration of volume in the warmer months. Medical develops, manufactures and distributes a wide range of innovative medical devices in the extremities fixation, craniomaxillofacial surgery, neurosurgery, biologics, aesthetics and powered instruments markets. The group’s leading-edge medical technology and products are used globally to help improve patient care and outcomes. Operations are based in the U.S., Europe and China and business is conducted primarily in North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Other industrial products CTB International Corp. (CTB) is a leading global designer, manufacturer and marketer of a wide range of agricultural systems and solutions for preserving grain, producing poultry, pigs and eggs, and for processing poultry, fish, vegetables and other foods. CTB operates from facilities located around the globe and supports customers through a worldwide network of independent distributors and dealers. LiquidPower Specialty Products Inc. (LSPI) is a global leader in the science of drag reduction application (DRA) technology by maximizing the flow potential of pipelines, increasing operational flexibility and throughput capacity, and efficiencies for customers. LSPI develops innovative flow improver solutions with customers in over 20 countries on five continents, treating over 50 million barrels of hydrocarbon liquids per day. LSPI’s DRA offering is part of a comprehensive, full-service solution that encompasses industry-leading technology, quality manufacturing, technical support and consulting, a reliable supply chain, injection equipment and field service. The Scott Fetzer companies are a group of businesses that manufacture, distribute, service and finance a wide variety of products for residential, industrial and institutional use. The industrial products group also includes certain manufacturing subsidiaries of Alleghany acquired in October 2022. The Alleghany businesses include the structural steel fabrication products business conducted through W&W|AFCO Steel. Additionally, the Alleghany businesses included certain other smaller manufacturers that primarily became part of Marmon. Building Products Clayton Clayton Homes, Inc. (Clayton) is a vertically integrated housing company offering traditional site-built homes and off-site (factory) built housing, including modular, manufactured, CrossMod and tiny homes. In 2022, Clayton delivered approximately 53,000 off-site built and 11,750 site-built homes. Clayton also offers home financing and insurance products and competes on price, service, location and delivery capabilities. All Clayton Built off-site built homes are designed, engineered and assembled in the U.S. Clayton sells off-site built homes through independent and company-owned home centers, realtors and subdivision channels. Clayton considers its ability to offer financing to retail purchasers a factor affecting the marketplace acceptance of its off-site built homes. Clayton’s financing programs utilize proprietary loan underwriting guidelines to evaluate loan applicants. Since 2015, Clayton’s site-built division, Clayton Properties Group, has expanded through the acquisition of nine builders across 18 states with over 310 subdivisions, supplementing the portfolio of housing products offered to customers. Clayton’s site-builders own and control approximately 70,000 homesites. Shaw Shaw Industries Group, Inc. (Shaw) is a leading manufacturer and distributor of carpet, carpet tile, and hard surface flooring products. Shaw designs and manufactures over 4,000 styles of tufted carpet, wood and resilient flooring for residential and commercial use under about 30 brand and trade names and under certain private labels. Soft and hard surface products are available in a broad range of patterns, colors and textures. Shaw’s carpet manufacturing operations are fully integrated from the processing of raw materials used to make fiber through to the finishing. Shaw’s flooring businesses are primarily in the U.S. and it also manufactures in China and the U.K. and distributes carpet tile throughout Europe and Southeast Asia. Shaw manufactures or distributes a variety of hardwood, wood plastic composite (WPC), stone plastic composite (SPC), vinyl and laminate floor products (hard surfaces). Shaw’s Integrated Solutions business also provides project management and installation services. Shaw operates Shaw Sports Turf , Sawgrass and Southwest Greens International, LLC, which provide synthetic sports turf, golf greens and landscape turf products. Since 2021, Shaw’s businesses include Watershed Geosynthetics, LLC, which sells innovative and patented environmental solutions for utility, waste management, erosion control and mining industries. Shaw products are sold wholesale to over 46,000 retailers, distributors and commercial users throughout the U.S., Canada, Mexico and the U.K. Products are also exported to various overseas markets. Shaw’s wholesale products are marketed domestically by over 2,000 salaried and commissioned sales personnel directly to retailers and distributors and to large national accounts. Shaw’s seven carpet and nine hard surface facilities, one sample full-service distribution facility, three sample satellite locations and 30 redistribution centers, along with centralized management information systems, enable it to provide prompt and efficient delivery of its products to both its retail customers and wholesale distributors. Substantially all carpet manufactured by Shaw is tufted carpet made from nylon, polypropylene and polyester, as well as recycled materials. During 2022, Shaw processed approximately 89% of its requirements for carpet yarn in its own yarn processing facilities. Johns Manville Johns Manville Corporation (JM) is a leading manufacturer and marketer of premium-quality products for building insulation, mechanical and industrial insulation, commercial roofing and roof insulation, as well as reinforcement fiberglass and technical nonwovens. JM serves markets that include aerospace, automotive and transportation, air handling, appliance, HVAC, pipe and equipment, air and liquid filtration, waterproofing, building, flooring, interiors and wind energy. Fiberglass is the basic material in many of JM’s products, although JM also manufactures a significant portion of its products with other materials to satisfy the broader needs of its customers. JM regards its patents and licenses as valuable; however it does not consider any of its businesses to be materially dependent on any single patent or license. JM operates over 40 manufacturing facilities in North America and Europe and conducts research and development at its technical center in Littleton, Colorado and at other facilities in the U.S. and Europe. Fiberglass is made from earthen raw materials and recycled glass. JM’s products also contain materials other than fiberglass, including chemical agents to bind many of its glass fibers and various chemical-based and petrochemical-based materials used in roofing and other specialized products. JM uses recycled material when available and suitable to satisfy the broader needs of its customers. The raw materials used in these various products are generally readily available in sufficient quantities from various sources to maintain and expand its production levels. JM’s operations are subject to a variety of federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, which regulate or impose liability for the discharge of materials into the air, land and water and govern the use and disposal of hazardous substances and use of chemical substances. The most relevant of the federal laws are the Federal Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which are administered by the EPA. Canadian and European regulatory authorities have also adopted their own environmental laws and regulations. JM continually monitors new and pending regulations and assesses their potential impact on the business. JM’s capital projects regularly address environmental compliance and are generally incidental to other capital projects. JM sells its products through a wide variety of channels, including contractors, distributors, retailers, manufacturers and fabricators. The sale of JM’s products are moderately seasonal due to increases in construction activity that typically occur in the second and third quarters (year ended December 2022) of the calendar year. MiTek MiTek Industries, Inc. (MiTek) operates in two separate building markets: residential and commercial. MiTek operates worldwide with sales in over 100 countries and with manufacturing facilities and/or sales/engineering offices located in 20 countries. In the residential building market, MiTek is a leading supplier of engineered connector products, construction hardware, engineering software and services, and computer-driven manufacturing machinery to the truss component market of the building components industry. MiTek’s primary customers are component manufacturers who manufacture prefabricated roof and floor trusses and wall panels for the residential building market. MiTek also sells construction hardware to commercial distributors and do-it-yourself retail stores. Benjamin Moore Benjamin Moore & Co. (Benjamin Moore) is one of North America’s leading manufacturers of premium quality residential, commercial and industrial maintenance coatings. The Benjamin Moore premium portfolio includes Aura, Regal Select, Ultra Spec, ben, ADVANCE, ARBORCOAT and others. The Benjamin Moore diversified brands include specialty and architectural paints from Coronado and Insl-x. Benjamin Moore coatings are available through more than 8,000 independently owned and operated paint, decorating and hardware retailers, including approximately 3,800 Ace Hardware (Ace) stores, throughout the U.S. and Canada, as well as 75 countries globally. Benjamin Moore became the preferred paint supplier for the aforementioned Ace Stores in 2019 through an agreement which affords these stores the opportunity to carry a full line of Benjamin Moore products or a streamlined offering of certain branded products. As part of the agreement, Benjamin Moore assumed responsibility for manufacturing Clark+Kensington and Royal, as well as the balance of Ace’s private label paint brands. Benjamin Moore also allows customers to directly order coatings or color samples online or, for national accounts and government agencies, via its customer information center, for delivery to the customer or a retailer near the customer. Benjamin Moore competes with numerous manufacturers, distributors and paint, coatings and related products retailers. Competitors include other premium paint and decorating stores, mass merchandisers, home centers, independent hardware stores, hardware chains and manufacturer-operated direct outlets, such as Sherwin-Williams Company, PPG Industries, Inc., The Home Depot, Inc. and Lowe’s Companies, Inc. Acme Acme Brick Company (Acme) manufactures and distributes clay bricks (Acme Brick) and concrete block (Featherlite). In addition, Acme distributes numerous other building products of other manufacturers, including floor and wall tile, wood flooring and other masonry products. Products are sold primarily in the South Central and Southeastern U.S. through company-operated sales offices. Acme distributes products primarily to homebuilders and masonry and general contractors. Acme operates 12 clay brick manufacturing sites located in four states and three concrete block facilities in Texas. The demand for Acme’s products is seasonal, with higher sales in the warmer weather months, and is subject to the level of construction activity, which is cyclical. Acme also owns and leases properties and mineral rights that supply raw materials used in many of its manufactured products. Acme’s raw materials supply is believed to be adequate. The brick industry is subject to the EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (MACT). As required under the 1990 Clean Air Act, the EPA developed a list of source categories that require the development of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, which are also referred to as MACT Standards (Rule). Key elements of the MACT Rule include emission limits established for certain hazardous air pollutants and acidic gases. Acme’s brick plants are in compliance with the Rule. Consumer Products Recreational vehicles Forest River, Inc. (Forest River) is a manufacturer of recreational vehicles (RV), utility cargo trailers, buses and pontoon boats with products sold in the U.S. and Canada through an independent dealer network. Forest River has numerous manufacturing facilities located in six states and is a leading manufacturer of RVs with numerous brand names, including Forest River, Coachmen RV and Prime Time. Utility cargo trailers are sold under a variety of brand names. Buses are sold under several brand names, including Starcraft Bus. Pontoon boats are sold under the Berkshire, South Bay and Trifecta brand names. Forest River is subject to regulations of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, the safety standards for recreational vehicles established by the U.S. Department of Transportation and similar laws and regulations issued by the Canadian government. Forest River is a member of the Recreational Vehicle Industry Association, a voluntary association of RV manufacturers which promotes safety standards for RVs. Apparel and footwear Fruit of the Loom Inc. (FOL) is primarily a manufacturer and distributor of basic apparel, underwear, casualwear, athletic apparel and sports equipment. Products under the Fruit of the Loom and JERZEES labels are primarily sold in the mass merchandise, mid-tier chains and wholesale markets. In the Vanity Fair Brands product line, Vassarette, Curvation and Radiant by Vanity Fair are sold in the mass merchandise market, while Vanity Fair and Lily of France products are sold to mid-tier chains and department stores. FOL also markets and sells athletic apparel and sports equipment to team dealers and to sporting goods retailers under the Russell Athletic and Spalding brands. Additionally, Spalding markets and sells sports equipment in the mass merchandise market and dollar store channels. FOL generally performs its own knitting, cloth finishing, cutting, sewing and packaging for apparel. For the North American market, which is FOL’s predominant sales region, cloth manufacturing is primarily performed in Honduras. Labor-intensive cutting, sewing and packaging operations are in Central America, the Caribbean and Vietnam. For the European market, products are either sourced from third-party contractors in Europe or Asia or sewn in Morocco from textiles internally produced in Morocco. Bras, athletic equipment, sporting goods and other athletic apparel lines are generally sourced from third-party contractors located primarily in Asia. Garan Incorporated (Garan) designs, manufactures, imports and sells apparel primarily for children, including boys, girls, toddlers and infants. Products are sold under its own trademarks Garanimals and 365 Kids from Garanimals and easy-peasy, as well as customer private label brands. Garan conducts its business through operating subsidiaries located in the U.S., Central America and Asia. Garan’s products are sold through its distribution centers in the U.S. Fechheimer Brothers Company (Fechheimers) manufactures and distributes uniforms, principally for the public service and safety markets, including police, fire, postal and military markets. Fechheimers is based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The BH Shoe Holdings Group manufactures and distributes work, rugged outdoor and casual shoes and western-style footwear under a number of brand names, including Justin, Tony Lama, Chippewa, BØRN, B•Ø•C, Carolina, EuroSofft, Söfft, Double-H Boots, Nursemates and Comfortiva. Brooks Sports, Inc. markets and sells performance running footwear and apparel to specialty and national retailers and directly to consumers under the Brooks brand. A significant volume of the shoes sold by Berkshire’s shoe businesses are sold worldwide through a variety of channels, including department stores, footwear chains, specialty stores, catalogs and the Internet, as well as through company-owned retail stores. Other consumer products The Duracell Company (Duracell) is a leading manufacturer of high-performance alkaline and lithium coin batteries. Duracell manufactures batteries in the U.S., Europe and China and provides a network of worldwide sales and distribution centers. Duracell sells its products to a diverse group of retailers and distributors across the globe. Albecca Inc. (Albecca) operates in the U.S., Canada and 11 other countries, with products primarily under the Larson-Juhl name. Albecca designs, manufactures and distributes a complete line of high quality, branded custom framing products, including wood and metal moulding, matboard, foamboard, glass and framing supplies. Complementary to its framing products, Albecca offers art printing and fulfillment services. Richline Group, Inc. operates five strategic business units: Richline Jewelry, Richline Digital, LeachGarner, Rio Grande and Inverness. Each business unit is a manufacturer and/or distributor of precious metal, non-precious metal, diamond and gem products to specific target markets, including large jewelry chains, department stores, shopping networks, mass merchandisers, e-commerce retailers and artisans, as well as certain global manufacturers and wholesalers in the medical, electronics and aerospace industries. The consumer products group also includes Jazwares, LLC and its subsidiaries and affiliates, (Jazwares), acquired in October 2022 in connection with Alleghany. Jazwares is a global toy company headquartered in Sunrise, Florida Service and Retailing Businesses Service Businesses Berkshire’s service businesses provide grocery and foodservice distribution, professional aviation training programs, shared aircraft ownership programs and distribution of electronic components. Other service businesses include franchising and servicing of quick service restaurants, media businesses (television and information distribution), as well as logistics businesses. McLane McLane Company, Inc. (McLane) provides wholesale distribution services in all 50 states to customers that include convenience stores, discount retailers, wholesale clubs, drug stores, military bases, quick service restaurants and casual dining restaurants. McLane’s major customers during 2022 included Walmart (approximately 15.5% of revenues); 7-Eleven (approximately 14.2% of revenues); and Yum! Brands, (approximately 12.0% of revenues). McLane’s business model is based on a high volume of sales, rapid inventory turnover and stringent expense controls. Operations are divided into three business units: grocery distribution, foodservice distribution and beverage distribution. McLane’s grocery distribution unit, based in Temple, Texas, maintains a dominant market share within the convenience store industry and serves most of the national convenience store chains and major oil company retail outlets. Grocery operations provide products to approximately 48,500 retail locations nationwide. McLane’s grocery distribution unit operates 25 distribution facilities in 20 states. McLane’s foodservice distribution unit, based in Carrollton, Texas, focuses on serving the quick service and casual dining restaurant industry with high quality, timely-delivered products. Operations are conducted through 47 facilities in 22 states. The foodservice distribution unit services approximately 33,600 restaurants nationwide. Through its subsidiaries, McLane also operates wholesale distributors of distilled spirits, wine and beer. The beverage unit operates as Empire Distributors and operations are conducted through 14 distribution centers in Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Colorado. Empire Distributors services approximately 27,600 retail locations in the southeastern U.S. and Colorado. FlightSafety FlightSafety International Inc. (FlightSafety) is an industry leading provider of professional aviation training services and flight simulation products. FlightSafety and FlightSafety Textron Aviation Training, a joint venture with Textron, provide high technology training to pilots, aircraft maintenance technicians, flight attendants and dispatchers who operate and support a wide variety of business, commercial and military aircraft. The training is provided using a large fleet of advanced full flight simulators at learning centers and training locations in the U.S., Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Singapore, Norway, South Africa and the U.K. Compliance with applicable environmental regulations is an inherent requirement to operate the facilities. The vast majority of the instructors, training programs and flight simulators are qualified by the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other aviation regulatory agencies around the world. FlightSafety is also a leader in the design and manufacture of full flight simulators, visual systems, displays and other advanced technology training devices. This equipment is used to support FlightSafety training programs and is offered for sale to airlines and government and military organizations around the world. Manufacturing facilities are located in Oklahoma, Missouri and Illinois. FlightSafety strives to maintain and manufacture simulators and develop courseware using state-of-the-art technology; and invests in research and development as it builds new equipment and training programs. NetJets NetJets Inc. (NetJets) is the leader in private aviation services and operates a large, diverse private aircraft fleet and offers a full range of personalized private aviation solutions to meet and exceed the high standards of its customers. NetJets’ global headquarters is located in Columbus, Ohio. NetJets’ European operations are based in Lisbon, Portugal. The shared ownership concept is designed to meet the travel needs of customers who require the scale, flexibility and access of a large fleet of aircraft as opposed to reliance on whole aircraft ownership. In addition, shared ownership programs are available for corporate flight departments seeking to outsource their general aviation needs or add capacity for peak periods and for others that previously chartered aircraft. NetJets’ programs are focused on safety and service and are designed to offer customers guaranteed availability of aircraft, predictable operating costs and increased liquidity. NetJets’ shared aircraft ownership programs permit customers to acquire a specific percentage of a certain aircraft type and allows customers to utilize the aircraft for a specified number of flight hours annually. In addition, NetJets offers prepaid flight cards and other aviation solutions and services for aircraft management, customized aircraft sales and acquisition, ground support and flight operation services under several programs, including NetJets Shares, NetJets Leases and the NetJets Card Program. NetJets is subject to the rules and regulations of the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Portuguese Civil Aviation Authority and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency. Regulations address aircraft registration, maintenance requirements, pilot qualifications and airport operations, including flight planning and scheduling, as well as security issues and other matters. NetJets maintains comprehensive training and development programs in compliance with regulatory requirements for pilots, flight attendants, maintenance mechanics, and other flight operations specialists, many of whom are represented by unions. TTI TTI, Inc. (TTI) is a global specialty distributor of passive, interconnect, electromechanical, discrete, and semiconductor components used by customers in the manufacturing and assembling of electronic products. TTI’s customer base includes OEMs, electronic manufacturing services, original design manufacturers and military and commercial customers, as well as design and system engineers. TTI’s distribution agreements with the industry’s leading suppliers allow it to uniquely leverage its product cost and to expand its business by providing new lines and products to its customers. TTI operates sales offices and distribution centers from more than 100 locations throughout North America, South America, Europe and Asia. TTI services a variety of industries, including telecommunications, medical devices, computers and office equipment, military/aerospace, automotive and industrial electronics. TTI’s core customers include businesses in the design through production stages in the electronic component supply chain, which supports its high-volume business, and its Mouser subsidiary, which supports a broader base of customers with lower volume purchases through internet-based marketing. Other services XTRA Corporation (XTRA) is a leading transportation equipment lessor operating under the XTRA Lease brand name. XTRA manages a diverse fleet of approximately 89,000 units located at 47 facilities throughout the U.S. The fleet includes over-the-road and storage trailers, chassis, temperature-controlled vans and flatbed trailers. XTRA is one of the largest lessors (in terms of units available) of over-the-road trailers in North America. Transportation equipment customers lease equipment to cover cyclical, seasonal and geographic needs and as a substitute for purchasing equipment. Therefore, as a provider of marginal capacity to its customers, XTRA’s utilization rates and operating results tend to be cyclical. In addition, transportation providers often use leasing to maximize their asset utilization and reduce capital expenditures. By maintaining a large fleet, XTRA is able to provide customers with a broad selection of equipment and quick response times. International Dairy Queen Inc. develops and services a worldwide system of over 7,000 franchised restaurants operating primarily under the names DQ Grill and Chill, Dairy Queen and Orange Julius that offer various dairy desserts, beverages, prepared foods and blended fruit drinks. Business Wire Inc. (Business Wire) transmits full-text news releases, regulatory filings, photos and other multimedia content to journalists, financial professionals, investor services, regulatory authorities and the general public. Releases are distributed globally via Business Wire’s patented NX network. CORT Business Services Corporation (CORT) is a leading national provider of rental furniture and related services in the ‘rent-to-rent’ segment of the furniture rental industry. CORT’s primary revenue streams include furniture rental to individuals, businesses, government agencies, the trade show and events industry and retail sales of new and used furniture. WPLG, Inc. is an ABC affiliate television broadcast station in Miami, Florida and Charter Brokerage Holdings Corp. is a leading non-asset based third party logistics provider to the petroleum and chemical industries. In connection with the Alleghany acquisition, the services group includes IPS-Integrated Project Services, LLC, a provider of a variety of services, including design and engineering, project management, procurement, validation and consulting that are used in facilities construction projects. Retailing Businesses Berkshire’s retailing businesses include automotive, home furnishings and several other operations that sell various consumer products. Information regarding each of these operations follows. Berkshire Hathaway Automotive Berkshire Hathaway Automotive, Inc. (BHA) is one of the largest automotive retailers in the U.S., operating 106 new vehicle franchises through 83 dealerships located primarily in major metropolitan markets in the U.S. The dealerships sell new and used vehicles, vehicle maintenance and repair services, extended service contracts, vehicle protection products and other aftermarket products. BHA also arranges financing for its customers through third-party lenders. BHA operates 28 collision centers directly connected to the dealerships’ operations and owns and operates two auto auctions and an automotive fluid maintenance products distributor. Dealership operations are highly concentrated in the Arizona and Texas markets, with approximately 75% of dealership-related revenues derived from sales in these markets. BHA maintains franchise agreements with 27 different vehicle manufacturers, although it derives a significant portion of its revenue from the Toyota/Lexus, General Motors, Ford/Lincoln, Nissan/Infiniti and Honda/Acura brands. Approximately 90% of BHA’s annual revenues are from dealerships representing these manufacturers. BHA’s overall relationships with the automobile manufacturers are governed by framework agreements. Individual dealerships operate under franchise agreements with the manufacturer, which grants the dealership entity a non-exclusive right to sell the manufacturer’s brand of vehicles and offer related parts and service within a specified market area, as well as the right to use the manufacturer’s trademarks. The agreements contain various requirements and restrictions related to the management and operation of the franchised dealership and provide for termination of the agreement by the manufacturer or non-renewal for a variety of causes. BHA also develops, underwrites and administers various vehicle protection plans, as well as life and accident and health insurance plans sold to consumers through BHA’s dealerships and third-party dealerships. BHA also develops proprietary training programs and materials and provides ongoing monitoring and training of the dealership’s finance and insurance personnel. Home Furnishings Retailing The home furnishings businesses consist of Nebraska Furniture Mart Inc. (NFM), R.C. Willey Home Furnishings (R.C. Willey), Star Furniture Company (Star) and Jordan’s Furniture, Inc. (Jordan’s). These businesses offer a wide selection of furniture, bedding and accessories. In addition, NFM and R.C. Willey sell a full line of major household appliances, electronics, computers and other home furnishings and offer customer financing to complement their retail operations. NFM operates its business from four retail complexes with almost 4.5 million square feet of retail, warehouse and administrative facilities located in Omaha, Nebraska, Clive, Iowa, Kansas City, Kansas and The Colony, Texas. NFM also owns Homemakers Furniture located in Urbandale, Iowa, which has approximately 600,000 square feet of retail, warehouse and administrative space. NFM is the largest furniture retailer in each of these markets. R.C. Willey, based in Salt Lake City, Utah, operates ten full-line retail home furnishings stores and three distribution centers. These facilities include approximately 1.3 million square feet of retail space with four stores located in Utah, one store in Meridian, Idaho, three stores in Nevada (Las Vegas and Reno) and two stores in the Sacramento, California area. Jordan’s operates a retail furniture business from seven locations with approximately 890,000 square feet of retail space in stores located in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Maine and Connecticut. The retail stores are supported by an 800,000 square foot distribution center in Taunton, Massachusetts. Jordan’s is the largest furniture retailer, as measured by sales, in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. Jordan’s is well known in its markets for its unique store arrangements and advertising campaigns. Star has operated home furnishings retail stores in Texas for many years. Star’s retail facilities include about 700,000 square feet of retail space in 10 locations in Texas, including seven in Houston. Other retailing Borsheim Jewelry Company, Inc. (Borsheims) operates from a single store in Omaha, Nebraska. Borsheims is a high-volume retailer of fine jewelry, watches, crystal, china, stemware, flatware, gifts and collectibles. Helzberg’s Diamond Shops, LLC. (Helzberg) is based in North Kansas City, Missouri, and operates a chain of 170 retail jewelry stores in 34 states, which includes approximately 400,000 square feet of retail space. Helzberg’s stores are located in malls, lifestyle centers, power strip centers and outlet malls, and all stores operate under the name Helzberg Diamonds or Helzberg Diamonds Outlet. The Ben Bridge Corporation (Ben Bridge Jeweler), based in Seattle, Washington, operates 37 retail jewelry stores under two different brand names, located primarily in major shopping malls in nine western states. Thirty-six of its retail locations are upscale jewelry stores selling loose diamonds, finished jewelry and high-end timepieces. One store is a Breitling concept store, selling only Breitling timepieces. See’s Candy Shops, Incorporated (See’s) produces boxed chocolates and other confectionery products with an emphasis on quality and distinctiveness in two large kitchens in Los Angeles and South San Francisco and a facility in Burlingame, California. See’s operates approximately 250 retail and volume saving stores located mainly in California and other Western states, as well as over 125 seasonal locations. See’s revenues are highly seasonal with approximately half of its annual revenues earned in the fourth quarter. The Pampered Chef, Ltd. (Pampered Chef) is a premier direct seller of distinctive high-quality kitchenware products with sales and operations in the U.S., Canada, Germany, Austria and France and operations in China. Pampered Chef’s product portfolio consists of over 400 Pampered Chef branded kitchenware items in categories ranging from stoneware and cutlery to grilling and entertaining. Pampered Chef’s products are available through its sales force of independent cooking consultants and online. Oriental Trading Company (OTC) is a leading multi-channel and online retailer for fun-value-priced party supplies, seasonl products, arts and crafts, toys and novelties, school supplies and educational games. OTC, headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, serves a broad base of nearly four million customers annually, including consumers, schools, churches, non-profit organizations, medical and dental offices and other businesses. OTC offers a unique assortment of over 80,000 fun products emphasizing proprietary designs. OTC operates both direct-to-consumer and business-to-business brands, including Oriental Trading, Fun Express, MindWare, SmileMakers, Morris Costumes and HalloweenExpress.com and utilizes digital and print marketing along with dedicated sales teams to promote online sales. Detlev Louis Motorrad (Louis) is a leading retailer of motorcycle clothing and equipment in Europe. Louis carries over 50,000 different store and private label products, mainly covering the areas of clothing, technical equipment and leisure. Louis has over 80 stores in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands, as well as an online business with online shops in various languages in Europe. Pilot Travel Centers Since October 2017, the company had owned a 38.6% interest in Pilot Travel Centers, LLC (Pilot). Through December 31, 2022, the company accounted for its investment in Pilot under the equity method. In January 2023, the company acquired an additional 41.4% interest in Pilot and it attained control of Pilot for financial reporting purposes as of that date. Pilot is the largest operator of travel centers in North America (primarily under the names Pilot or Flying J) with more than 650 travel center locations across 44 U.S. states and six Canadian provinces. Pilot also has over 150 retail locations in the U.S. and Canada where it sells diesel fuel through various arrangements with third party travel centers. Pilot sold over 13 billion gallons of fuel in 2022 (primarily diesel and gasoline). Pilot’s travel centers are generally located close to an interstate highway and offer petroleum products, merchandise, fast food, and a variety of services and amenities to consumers and professional truck drivers. While Pilot’s primary business is operating fuel and inside store travel centers, it also enters into dealer agreements with existing travel centers where Pilot procures and sells diesel fuel at these locations for a fee. Additionally, Pilot operates large wholesale fuel and fuel marketing platforms in the U.S. and operates a water hauling and disposal business in the oil fields sector. The travel center industry is concentrated among a few large operators (including Love’s Travel Stops and TravelCenters of America), although there are numerous independent operators that operate one to ten travel centers. Pilot supplies approximately 1.5 billion gallons per year of low-carbon fuels (renewable diesel, biodiesel and ethanol) and approximately 320 million gallons per year of diesel exhaust fluid. During 2022, Pilot entered a partnership with General Motors Company to develop a nationwide electric vehicle fast charger network of 2,000 charging stations in 500 U.S. locations by 2026. Pilot also signed a letter of intent with Volvo during 2022 in a partnership to develop a nationwide public charging network to support the expansion of battery-powered electric trucks. Pilot is subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to the environment. These laws generally provide for control of pollutants released into the environment and require responsible parties to undertake remediation of hazardous waste disposal sites. Additional information with respect to Berkshire’s businesses Berkshire or a subsidiary owns 26.6% of the outstanding common stock of The Kraft Heinz Company (Kraft Heinz) and 21.4% of the outstanding Occidental Petroleum Corporation (Occidental) common stock. Kraft Heinz manufactures and markets food and beverage products, including condiments and sauces, cheese and dairy, meals, meats, refreshment beverages, coffee and other grocery products. Occidental is an international energy company, including oil and natural gas exploration, development and production, and chemicals manufacturing businesses. Occidental’s midstream businesses purchase, market, gather, process, transport and store various oil, natural gas, carbon dioxide and other products. Berkshire subsidiaries also own a 50% joint venture interest in Berkadia Commercial Mortgage LLC. Properties Berkshire’s railroad and utilities and energy businesses, in particular, utilize considerable physical assets in their businesses. Railroad Business—Burlington Northern Santa Fe Through BNSF Railway, BNSF operates over 32,500 route miles of track (excluding multiple main tracks, yard tracks and sidings) in 28 states, and also operates in three Canadian provinces. BNSF owns over 23,000 route miles, including easements, and operates over 9,000 route miles of trackage rights that permit BNSF to operate its trains with its crews over other railroads’ tracks. As of December 31, 2022, the total BNSF Railway system, including single and multiple main tracks, yard tracks and sidings, consisted of over 50,000 operated miles of track. BNSF operates various facilities and equipment to support its transportation system, including its infrastructure, locomotives and freight cars. It also owns or leases other equipment to support rail operations, such as vehicles. Support facilities for rail operations include yards and terminals throughout its rail network, system locomotive shops to perform locomotive servicing and maintenance, a centralized network operations center for train dispatching and network operations monitoring and management, computers, telecommunications equipment, signal systems and other support systems. Transfer facilities are maintained for rail-to-rail, as well as intermodal transfer of containers, trailers and other freight traffic and include approximately 25 intermodal hubs located across the system. BNSF owns or holds under non-cancelable leases exceeding one year approximately 7,500 locomotives and 68,000 freight cars, in addition to maintenance of way and other equipment. Utilities and Energy Businesses—Berkshire Hathaway Energy BHE’s energy properties consist of the physical assets necessary to support its electricity and natural gas businesses. Properties of BHE’s electricity businesses include electric generation, transmission and distribution facilities, as well as coal mining assets that support certain of BHE’s electric generating facilities. Properties of BHE’s natural gas businesses include natural gas distribution facilities, interstate pipelines, storage facilities, liquefied natural gas facilities, compressor stations and meter stations. The transmission and distribution assets are primarily within each of BHE’s utility service territories. In addition to these physical assets, BHE has rights-of-way, mineral rights and water rights that enable BHE to utilize its facilities. As of December 31, 2022, BHE’s subsidiaries also have electric generating facilities that are under construction in Nevada and Wyoming having total Facility Net Capacity and Net Owned Capacity of 243 MW. PacifiCorp, MEC and NV Energy own electric transmission and distribution systems, including approximately 27,800 miles of transmission lines and approximately 1,670 substations, and gas distribution facilities, including approximately 28,200 miles of gas mains and service lines. Northern Powergrid (Northeast) and Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) operate an electricity distribution network that includes approximately 17,400 miles of overhead lines; approximately 43,300 miles of underground cables; and approximately 780 major substations. AltaLink’s electricity transmission system includes approximately 8,200 miles of transmission lines and approximately 310 substations. The BHE GT&S pipeline system consists of approximately 5,400 miles of natural gas transmission, gathering and storage pipelines located in portions of Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia. Storage services are provided through the operation of 17 underground natural gas storage fields located in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and New York. BHE GT&S also operates, as the general partner, and owns a 25% limited partnership interest in one liquefied natural gas export, import and storage facility in Maryland and operates and has ownership interests in three smaller liquefied natural gas facilities in Alabama, Florida and Pennsylvania. Northern Natural’s pipeline system consists of approximately 14,400 miles of natural gas pipelines, including approximately 5,900 miles of mainline transmission pipelines and approximately 8,500 miles of branch and lateral pipelines. Northern Natural’s end-use and distribution market area includes points in Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, Michigan and Illinois and its natural gas supply and delivery service area includes points in Kansas, Texas, Oklahoma and New Mexico. Storage services are provided through the operation of one underground natural gas storage field in Iowa, two underground natural gas storage facilities in Kansas and two liquefied natural gas storage peaking units, one in Iowa and one in Minnesota. Kern River’s system consists of approximately 1,400 miles of natural gas pipelines, which extends from the system’s point of origination in Wyoming through the Central Rocky Mountains into California. History Berkshire Hathaway Inc. was incorporated in 1998.